Python 2.7 References - NET SOUP

Python 2.7 References - NET SOUP
NET SOUP has a reference guide to most useful commands and api in Python 2.7. We attempted to bring Python in our framework to make Python Reference an easy task for you

Python is a very nice and power language. It's been used in tiny embedded devices as well as in powerful web servers. Its usage has no boundary.

Just like any languages, it's difficult to remember the syntax and function signatures for important/common methods. We attempted to bring Python in our framework to make Python Reference an easy task for you. We take care of all index jumping back and forth and you focus on browsing and learning what's important to you.

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List of Terms

whatsnew/index What’s New in Python
whatsnew/2html What’s New in Python 2.7
whatsnew/2html#the-future-for-python-2-x The Future for Python 2.x
whatsnew/2html#changes-to-the-handling-of-deprecation-warnings Changes to the Handling of Deprecation Warnings
whatsnew/2html#python-3-1-features Python 3.1 Features
whatsnew/2html#pep-372-adding-an-ordered-dictionary-to-collections PEP 372: Adding an Ordered Dictionary to collections
whatsnew/2html#pep-378-format-specifier-for-thousands-separator PEP 378: Format Specifier for Thousands Separator
whatsnew/2html#pep-389-the-argparse-module-for-parsing-command-lines PEP 389: The argparse Module for Parsing Command Lines
whatsnew/2html#pep-391-dictionary-based-configuration-for-logging PEP 391: Dictionary-Based Configuration For Logging
whatsnew/2html#pep-3106-dictionary-views PEP 3106: Dictionary Views
whatsnew/2html#pep-3137-the-memoryview-object PEP 3137: The memoryview Object
whatsnew/2html#other-language-changes Other Language Changes
whatsnew/2html#interpreter-changes Interpreter Changes
whatsnew/2html#optimizations Optimizations
whatsnew/2html#new-and-improved-modules New and Improved Modules
whatsnew/2html#new-module-importlib New module: importlib
whatsnew/2html#new-module-sysconfig New module: sysconfig
whatsnew/2html#ttk-themed-widgets-for-tk ttk: Themed Widgets for Tk
whatsnew/2html#updated-module-unittest Updated module: unittest
whatsnew/2html#updated-module-elementtree-1-3 Updated module: ElementTree 1.3
whatsnew/2html#build-and-c-api-changes Build and C API Changes
whatsnew/2html#capsules Capsules
whatsnew/2html#port-specific-changes-windows Port-Specific Changes: Windows
whatsnew/2html#port-specific-changes-mac-os-x Port-Specific Changes: Mac OS X
whatsnew/2html#port-specific-changes-freebsd Port-Specific Changes: FreeBSD
whatsnew/2html#other-changes-and-fixes Other Changes and Fixes
whatsnew/2html#porting-to-python-2-7 Porting to Python 2.7
whatsnew/2html#new-features-added-to-python-2-7-maintenance-releases New Features Added to Python 2.7 Maintenance Releases
whatsnew/2html#pep-434-idle-enhancement-exception-for-all-branches PEP 434: IDLE Enhancement Exception for All Branches
whatsnew/2html#pep-466-network-security-enhancements-for-python-2-7 PEP 466: Network Security Enhancements for Python 2.7
whatsnew/2html#acknowledgements Acknowledgements
whatsnew/2html What’s New in Python 2.6
whatsnew/2html#python-3-0 Python 3.0
whatsnew/2html#changes-to-the-development-process Changes to the Development Process
whatsnew/2html#new-issue-tracker-roundup New Issue Tracker: Roundup
whatsnew/2html#new-documentation-format-restructuredtext-using-sphinx New Documentation Format: reStructuredText Using Sphinx
whatsnew/2html#pep-343-the-with-statement PEP 343: The ‘with’ statement
whatsnew/2html#writing-context-managers Writing Context Managers
whatsnew/2html#the-contextlib-module The contextlib module
whatsnew/2html#pep-366-explicit-relative-imports-from-a-main-module PEP 366: Explicit Relative Imports From a Main Module
whatsnew/2html#pep-370-per-user-site-packages-directory PEP 370: Per-user site-packages Directory
whatsnew/2html#pep-371-the-multiprocessing-package PEP 371: The multiprocessing Package
whatsnew/2html#pep-3101-advanced-string-formatting PEP 3101: Advanced String Formatting
whatsnew/2html#pep-3105-print-as-a-function PEP 3105: print As a Function
whatsnew/2html#pep-3110-exception-handling-changes PEP 3110: Exception-Handling Changes
whatsnew/2html#pep-3112-byte-literals PEP 3112: Byte Literals
whatsnew/2html#pep-3116-new-i-o-library PEP 3116: New I/O Library
whatsnew/2html#pep-3118-revised-buffer-protocol PEP 3118: Revised Buffer Protocol
whatsnew/2html#pep-3119-abstract-base-classes PEP 3119: Abstract Base Classes
whatsnew/2html#pep-3127-integer-literal-support-and-syntax PEP 3127: Integer Literal Support and Syntax
whatsnew/2html#pep-3129-class-decorators PEP 3129: Class Decorators
whatsnew/2html#pep-3141-a-type-hierarchy-for-numbers PEP 3141: A Type Hierarchy for Numbers
whatsnew/2html#the-fractions-module The fractions Module
whatsnew/2html#other-language-changes Other Language Changes
whatsnew/2html#optimizations Optimizations
whatsnew/2html#interpreter-changes Interpreter Changes
whatsnew/2html#new-and-improved-modules New and Improved Modules
whatsnew/2html#the-ast-module The ast module
whatsnew/2html#the-future-builtins-module The future_builtins module
whatsnew/2html#the-json-module-javascript-object-notation The json module: JavaScript Object Notation
whatsnew/2html#the-plistlib-module-a-property-list-parser The plistlib module: A Property-List Parser
whatsnew/2html#ctypes-enhancements ctypes Enhancements
whatsnew/2html#improved-ssl-support Improved SSL Support
whatsnew/2html#deprecations-and-removals Deprecations and Removals
whatsnew/2html#build-and-c-api-changes Build and C API Changes
whatsnew/2html#port-specific-changes-windows Port-Specific Changes: Windows
whatsnew/2html#port-specific-changes-mac-os-x Port-Specific Changes: Mac OS X
whatsnew/2html#port-specific-changes-irix Port-Specific Changes: IRIX
whatsnew/2html#porting-to-python-2-6 Porting to Python 2.6
whatsnew/2html#acknowledgements Acknowledgements
whatsnew/2html What’s New in Python 2.5
whatsnew/2html#pep-308-conditional-expressions PEP 308: Conditional Expressions
whatsnew/2html#pep-309-partial-function-application PEP 309: Partial Function Application
whatsnew/2html#pep-314-metadata-for-python-software-packages-v1-1 PEP 314: Metadata for Python Software Packages v1.1
whatsnew/2html#pep-328-absolute-and-relative-imports PEP 328: Absolute and Relative Imports
whatsnew/2html#pep-338-executing-modules-as-scripts PEP 338: Executing Modules as Scripts
whatsnew/2html#pep-341-unified-try-except-finally PEP 341: Unified try/except/finally
whatsnew/2html#pep-342-new-generator-features PEP 342: New Generator Features
whatsnew/2html#pep-343-the-with-statement PEP 343: The ‘with’ statement
whatsnew/2html#writing-context-managers Writing Context Managers
whatsnew/2html#the-contextlib-module The contextlib module
whatsnew/2html#pep-352-exceptions-as-new-style-classes PEP 352: Exceptions as New-Style Classes
whatsnew/2html#pep-353-using-ssize-t-as-the-index-type PEP 353: Using ssize_t as the index type
whatsnew/2html#pep-357-the-index-method PEP 357: The ‘__index__’ method
whatsnew/2html#other-language-changes Other Language Changes
whatsnew/2html#interactive-interpreter-changes Interactive Interpreter Changes
whatsnew/2html#optimizations Optimizations
whatsnew/2html#new-improved-and-removed-modules New, Improved, and Removed Modules
whatsnew/2html#the-ctypes-package The ctypes package
whatsnew/2html#the-elementtree-package The ElementTree package
whatsnew/2html#the-hashlib-package The hashlib package
whatsnew/2html#the-sqlite3-package The sqlite3 package
whatsnew/2html#the-wsgiref-package The wsgiref package
whatsnew/2html#build-and-c-api-changes Build and C API Changes
whatsnew/2html#port-specific-changes Port-Specific Changes
whatsnew/2html#porting-to-python-2-5 Porting to Python 2.5
whatsnew/2html#acknowledgements Acknowledgements
whatsnew/2html What’s New in Python 2.4
whatsnew/2html#pep-218-built-in-set-objects PEP 218: Built-In Set Objects
whatsnew/2html#pep-237-unifying-long-integers-and-integers PEP 237: Unifying Long Integers and Integers
whatsnew/2html#pep-289-generator-expressions PEP 289: Generator Expressions
whatsnew/2html#pep-292-simpler-string-substitutions PEP 292: Simpler String Substitutions
whatsnew/2html#pep-318-decorators-for-functions-and-methods PEP 318: Decorators for Functions and Methods
whatsnew/2html#pep-322-reverse-iteration PEP 322: Reverse Iteration
whatsnew/2html#pep-324-new-subprocess-module PEP 324: New subprocess Module
whatsnew/2html#pep-327-decimal-data-type PEP 327: Decimal Data Type
whatsnew/2html#why-is-decimal-needed Why is Decimal needed?
whatsnew/2html#the-decimal-type The Decimal type
whatsnew/2html#the-context-type The Context type
whatsnew/2html#pep-328-multi-line-imports PEP 328: Multi-line Imports
whatsnew/2html#pep-331-locale-independent-float-string-conversions PEP 331: Locale-Independent Float/String Conversions
whatsnew/2html#other-language-changes Other Language Changes
whatsnew/2html#optimizations Optimizations
whatsnew/2html#new-improved-and-deprecated-modules New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules
whatsnew/2html#cookielib cookielib
whatsnew/2html#doctest doctest
whatsnew/2html#build-and-c-api-changes Build and C API Changes
whatsnew/2html#port-specific-changes Port-Specific Changes
whatsnew/2html#porting-to-python-2-4 Porting to Python 2.4
whatsnew/2html#acknowledgements Acknowledgements
whatsnew/2html What’s New in Python 2.3
whatsnew/2html#pep-218-a-standard-set-datatype PEP 218: A Standard Set Datatype
whatsnew/2html#pep-255-simple-generators PEP 255: Simple Generators
whatsnew/2html#pep-263-source-code-encodings PEP 263: Source Code Encodings
whatsnew/2html#pep-273-importing-modules-from-zip-archives PEP 273: Importing Modules from ZIP Archives
whatsnew/2html#pep-277-unicode-file-name-support-for-windows-nt PEP 277: Unicode file name support for Windows NT
whatsnew/2html#pep-278-universal-newline-support PEP 278: Universal Newline Support
whatsnew/2html#pep-279-enumerate PEP 279: enumerate()
whatsnew/2html#pep-282-the-logging-package PEP 282: The logging Package
whatsnew/2html#pep-285-a-boolean-type PEP 285: A Boolean Type
whatsnew/2html#pep-293-codec-error-handling-callbacks PEP 293: Codec Error Handling Callbacks
whatsnew/2html#pep-301-package-index-and-metadata-for-distutils PEP 301: Package Index and Metadata for Distutils
whatsnew/2html#pep-302-new-import-hooks PEP 302: New Import Hooks
whatsnew/2html#pep-305-comma-separated-files PEP 305: Comma-separated Files
whatsnew/2html#pep-307-pickle-enhancements PEP 307: Pickle Enhancements
whatsnew/2html#extended-slices Extended Slices
whatsnew/2html#other-language-changes Other Language Changes
whatsnew/2html#string-changes String Changes
whatsnew/2html#optimizations Optimizations
whatsnew/2html#new-improved-and-deprecated-modules New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules
whatsnew/2html#date-time-type Date/Time Type
whatsnew/2html#the-optparse-module The optparse Module
whatsnew/2html#pymalloc-a-specialized-object-allocator Pymalloc: A Specialized Object Allocator
whatsnew/2html#build-and-c-api-changes Build and C API Changes
whatsnew/2html#port-specific-changes Port-Specific Changes
whatsnew/2html#other-changes-and-fixes Other Changes and Fixes
whatsnew/2html#porting-to-python-2-3 Porting to Python 2.3
whatsnew/2html#acknowledgements Acknowledgements
whatsnew/2html What’s New in Python 2.2
whatsnew/2html#introduction Introduction
whatsnew/2html#peps-252-and-253-type-and-class-changes PEPs 252 and 253: Type and Class Changes
whatsnew/2html#old-and-new-classes Old and New Classes
whatsnew/2html#descriptors Descriptors
whatsnew/2html#multiple-inheritance-the-diamond-rule Multiple Inheritance: The Diamond Rule
whatsnew/2html#attribute-access Attribute Access
whatsnew/2html#related-links Related Links
whatsnew/2html#pep-234-iterators PEP 234: Iterators
whatsnew/2html#pep-255-simple-generators PEP 255: Simple Generators
whatsnew/2html#pep-237-unifying-long-integers-and-integers PEP 237: Unifying Long Integers and Integers
whatsnew/2html#pep-238-changing-the-division-operator PEP 238: Changing the Division Operator
whatsnew/2html#unicode-changes Unicode Changes
whatsnew/2html#pep-227-nested-scopes PEP 227: Nested Scopes
whatsnew/2html#new-and-improved-modules New and Improved Modules
whatsnew/2html#interpreter-changes-and-fixes Interpreter Changes and Fixes
whatsnew/2html#other-changes-and-fixes Other Changes and Fixes
whatsnew/2html#acknowledgements Acknowledgements
whatsnew/2html What’s New in Python 2.1
whatsnew/2html#introduction Introduction
whatsnew/2html#pep-227-nested-scopes PEP 227: Nested Scopes
whatsnew/2html#pep-236-future-directives PEP 236: __future__ Directives
whatsnew/2html#pep-207-rich-comparisons PEP 207: Rich Comparisons
whatsnew/2html#pep-230-warning-framework PEP 230: Warning Framework
whatsnew/2html#pep-229-new-build-system PEP 229: New Build System
whatsnew/2html#pep-205-weak-references PEP 205: Weak References
whatsnew/2html#pep-232-function-attributes PEP 232: Function Attributes
whatsnew/2html#pep-235-importing-modules-on-case-insensitive-platforms PEP 235: Importing Modules on Case-Insensitive Platforms
whatsnew/2html#pep-217-interactive-display-hook PEP 217: Interactive Display Hook
whatsnew/2html#pep-208-new-coercion-model PEP 208: New Coercion Model
whatsnew/2html#pep-241-metadata-in-python-packages PEP 241: Metadata in Python Packages
whatsnew/2html#new-and-improved-modules New and Improved Modules
whatsnew/2html#other-changes-and-fixes Other Changes and Fixes
whatsnew/2html#acknowledgements Acknowledgements
whatsnew/2html What’s New in Python 2.0
whatsnew/2html#introduction Introduction
whatsnew/2html#what-about-python-1-6 What About Python 1.6?
whatsnew/2html#new-development-process New Development Process
whatsnew/2html#unicode Unicode
whatsnew/2html#list-comprehensions List Comprehensions
whatsnew/2html#augmented-assignment Augmented Assignment
whatsnew/2html#string-methods String Methods
whatsnew/2html#garbage-collection-of-cycles Garbage Collection of Cycles
whatsnew/2html#other-core-changes Other Core Changes
whatsnew/2html#minor-language-changes Minor Language Changes
whatsnew/2html#changes-to-built-in-functions Changes to Built-in Functions
whatsnew/2html#porting-to-2-0 Porting to 2.0
whatsnew/2html#extending-embedding-changes Extending/Embedding Changes
whatsnew/2html#distutils-making-modules-easy-to-install Distutils: Making Modules Easy to Install
whatsnew/2html#xml-modules XML Modules
whatsnew/2html#sax2-support SAX2 Support
whatsnew/2html#dom-support DOM Support
whatsnew/2html#relationship-to-pyxml Relationship to PyXML
whatsnew/2html#module-changes Module changes
whatsnew/2html#new-modules New modules
whatsnew/2html#idle-improvements IDLE Improvements
whatsnew/2html#deleted-and-deprecated-modules Deleted and Deprecated Modules
whatsnew/2html#acknowledgements Acknowledgements
tutorial/index The Python Tutorial
tutorial/appetite 1. Whetting Your Appetite
tutorial/interpreter 2. Using the Python Interpreter
tutorial/interpreter 2.1. Invoking the Interpreter
tutorial/interpreter 2.1.1. Argument Passing
tutorial/interpreter 2.1.2. Interactive Mode
tutorial/interpreter 2.2. The Interpreter and Its Environment
tutorial/interpreter 2.2.1. Source Code Encoding
tutorial/introduction 3. An Informal Introduction to Python
tutorial/introduction 3.1. Using Python as a Calculator
tutorial/introduction 3.1.1. Numbers
tutorial/introduction 3.1.2. Strings
tutorial/introduction 3.1.3. Unicode Strings
tutorial/introduction 3.1.4. Lists
tutorial/introduction 3.2. First Steps Towards Programming
tutorial/controlflow 4. More Control Flow Tools
tutorial/controlflow 4.1. if Statements
tutorial/controlflow 4.2. for Statements
tutorial/controlflow 4.3. The range() Function
tutorial/controlflow 4.4. break and continue Statements, and else Clauses on Loops
tutorial/controlflow 4.5. pass Statements
tutorial/controlflow 4.6. Defining Functions
tutorial/controlflow 4.7. More on Defining Functions
tutorial/controlflow 4.7.1. Default Argument Values
tutorial/controlflow 4.7.2. Keyword Arguments
tutorial/controlflow 4.7.3. Arbitrary Argument Lists
tutorial/controlflow 4.7.4. Unpacking Argument Lists
tutorial/controlflow 4.7.5. Lambda Expressions
tutorial/controlflow 4.7.6. Documentation Strings
tutorial/controlflow 4.8. Intermezzo: Coding Style
tutorial/datastructures 5. Data Structures
tutorial/datastructures 5.1. More on Lists
tutorial/datastructures 5.1.1. Using Lists as Stacks
tutorial/datastructures 5.1.2. Using Lists as Queues
tutorial/datastructures 5.1.3. Functional Programming Tools
tutorial/datastructures 5.1.4. List Comprehensions
tutorial/datastructures Nested List Comprehensions
tutorial/datastructures 5.2. The del statement
tutorial/datastructures 5.3. Tuples and Sequences
tutorial/datastructures 5.4. Sets
tutorial/datastructures 5.5. Dictionaries
tutorial/datastructures 5.6. Looping Techniques
tutorial/datastructures 5.7. More on Conditions
tutorial/datastructures 5.8. Comparing Sequences and Other Types
tutorial/modules 6. Modules
tutorial/modules 6.1. More on Modules
tutorial/modules 6.1.1. Executing modules as scripts
tutorial/modules 6.1.2. The Module Search Path
tutorial/modules 6.1.3. “Compiled” Python files
tutorial/modules 6.2. Standard Modules
tutorial/modules 6.3. The dir() Function
tutorial/modules 6.4. Packages
tutorial/modules 6.4.1. Importing * From a Package
tutorial/modules 6.4.2. Intra-package References
tutorial/modules 6.4.3. Packages in Multiple Directories
tutorial/inputoutput 7. Input and Output
tutorial/inputoutput 7.1. Fancier Output Formatting
tutorial/inputoutput 7.1.1. Old string formatting
tutorial/inputoutput 7.2. Reading and Writing Files
tutorial/inputoutput 7.2.1. Methods of File Objects
tutorial/inputoutput 7.2.2. Saving structured data with json
tutorial/errors 8. Errors and Exceptions
tutorial/errors 8.1. Syntax Errors
tutorial/errors 8.2. Exceptions
tutorial/errors 8.3. Handling Exceptions
tutorial/errors 8.4. Raising Exceptions
tutorial/errors 8.5. User-defined Exceptions
tutorial/errors 8.6. Defining Clean-up Actions
tutorial/errors 8.7. Predefined Clean-up Actions
tutorial/classes 9. Classes
tutorial/classes 9.1. A Word About Names and Objects
tutorial/classes 9.2. Python Scopes and Namespaces
tutorial/classes 9.3. A First Look at Classes
tutorial/classes 9.3.1. Class Definition Syntax
tutorial/classes 9.3.2. Class Objects
tutorial/classes 9.3.3. Instance Objects
tutorial/classes 9.3.4. Method Objects
tutorial/classes 9.3.5. Class and Instance Variables
tutorial/classes 9.4. Random Remarks
tutorial/classes 9.5. Inheritance
tutorial/classes 9.5.1. Multiple Inheritance
tutorial/classes 9.6. Private Variables and Class-local References
tutorial/classes 9.7. Odds and Ends
tutorial/classes 9.8. Exceptions Are Classes Too
tutorial/classes 9.9. Iterators
tutorial/classes 9.10. Generators
tutorial/classes 9.11. Generator Expressions
tutorial/stdlib 10. Brief Tour of the Standard Library
tutorial/stdlib 10.1. Operating System Interface
tutorial/stdlib 10.2. File Wildcards
tutorial/stdlib 10.3. Command Line Arguments
tutorial/stdlib 10.4. Error Output Redirection and Program Termination
tutorial/stdlib 10.5. String Pattern Matching
tutorial/stdlib 10.6. Mathematics
tutorial/stdlib 10.7. Internet Access
tutorial/stdlib 10.8. Dates and Times
tutorial/stdlib 10.9. Data Compression
tutorial/stdlib 10.10. Performance Measurement
tutorial/stdlib 10.11. Quality Control
tutorial/stdlib 10.12. Batteries Included
tutorial/stdlib2 11. Brief Tour of the Standard Library – Part II
tutorial/stdlib2 11.1. Output Formatting
tutorial/stdlib2 11.2. Templating
tutorial/stdlib2 11.3. Working with Binary Data Record Layouts
tutorial/stdlib2 11.4. Multi-threading
tutorial/stdlib2 11.5. Logging
tutorial/stdlib2 11.6. Weak References
tutorial/stdlib2 11.7. Tools for Working with Lists
tutorial/stdlib2 11.8. Decimal Floating Point Arithmetic
tutorial/whatnow 12. What Now?
tutorial/interactive 13. Interactive Input Editing and History Substitution
tutorial/interactive 13.1. Line Editing
tutorial/interactive 13.2. History Substitution
tutorial/interactive 13.3. Key Bindings
tutorial/interactive 13.4. Alternatives to the Interactive Interpreter
tutorial/floatingpoint 14. Floating Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations
tutorial/floatingpoint 14.1. Representation Error
tutorial/appendix 15. Appendix
tutorial/appendix 15.1. Interactive Mode
tutorial/appendix 15.1.1. Error Handling
tutorial/appendix 15.1.2. Executable Python Scripts
tutorial/appendix 15.1.3. The Interactive Startup File
tutorial/appendix 15.1.4. The Customization Modules
using/index Python Setup and Usage
using/cmdline 1. Command line and environment
using/cmdline 1.1. Command line
using/cmdline 1.1.1. Interface options
using/cmdline 1.1.2. Generic options
using/cmdline 1.1.3. Miscellaneous options
using/cmdline 1.1.4. Options you shouldn’t use
using/cmdline 1.2. Environment variables
using/cmdline 1.2.1. Debug-mode variables
using/unix 2. Using Python on Unix platforms
using/unix 2.1. Getting and installing the latest version of Python
using/unix 2.1.1. On Linux
using/unix 2.1.2. On FreeBSD and OpenBSD
using/unix 2.1.3. On OpenSolaris
using/unix 2.2. Building Python
using/unix 2.3. Python-related paths and files
using/unix 2.4. Miscellaneous
using/unix 2.5. Editors
using/windows 3. Using Python on Windows
using/windows 3.1. Installing Python
using/windows 3.2. Alternative bundles
using/windows 3.3. Configuring Python
using/windows 3.3.1. Excursus: Setting environment variables
using/windows 3.3.2. Finding the Python executable
using/windows 3.3.3. Finding modules
using/windows 3.3.4. Executing scripts
using/windows 3.4. Additional modules
using/windows 3.4.1. PyWin32
using/windows 3.4.2. Py2exe
using/windows 3.4.3. WConio
using/windows 3.5. Compiling Python on Windows
using/windows 3.6. Other resources
using/mac 4. Using Python on a Macintosh
using/mac 4.1. Getting and Installing MacPython
using/mac 4.1.1. How to run a Python script
using/mac 4.1.2. Running scripts with a GUI
using/mac 4.1.3. Configuration
using/mac 4.2. The IDE
using/mac 4.3. Installing Additional Python Packages
using/mac 4.4. GUI Programming on the Mac
using/mac 4.5. Distributing Python Applications on the Mac
using/mac 4.6. Other Resources
reference/index The Python Language Reference
reference/introduction 1. Introduction
reference/introduction 1.1. Alternate Implementations
reference/introduction 1.2. Notation
reference/lexical_analysis 2. Lexical analysis
reference/lexical_analysis 2.1. Line structure
reference/lexical_analysis 2.1.1. Logical lines
reference/lexical_analysis 2.1.2. Physical lines
reference/lexical_analysis 2.1.3. Comments
reference/lexical_analysis 2.1.4. Encoding declarations
reference/lexical_analysis 2.1.5. Explicit line joining
reference/lexical_analysis 2.1.6. Implicit line joining
reference/lexical_analysis 2.1.7. Blank lines
reference/lexical_analysis 2.1.8. Indentation
reference/lexical_analysis 2.1.9. Whitespace between tokens
reference/lexical_analysis 2.2. Other tokens
reference/lexical_analysis 2.3. Identifiers and keywords
reference/lexical_analysis 2.3.1. Keywords
reference/lexical_analysis 2.3.2. Reserved classes of identifiers
reference/lexical_analysis 2.4. Literals
reference/lexical_analysis 2.4.1. String literals
reference/lexical_analysis 2.4.2. String literal concatenation
reference/lexical_analysis 2.4.3. Numeric literals
reference/lexical_analysis 2.4.4. Integer and long integer literals
reference/lexical_analysis 2.4.5. Floating point literals
reference/lexical_analysis 2.4.6. Imaginary literals
reference/lexical_analysis 2.5. Operators
reference/lexical_analysis 2.6. Delimiters
reference/datamodel 3. Data model
reference/datamodel 3.1. Objects, values and types
reference/datamodel 3.2. The standard type hierarchy
reference/datamodel 3.3. New-style and classic classes
reference/datamodel 3.4. Special method names
reference/datamodel 3.4.1. Basic customization
reference/datamodel 3.4.2. Customizing attribute access
reference/datamodel More attribute access for new-style classes
reference/datamodel Implementing Descriptors
reference/datamodel Invoking Descriptors
reference/datamodel __slots__
reference/datamodel 3.4.3. Customizing class creation
reference/datamodel 3.4.4. Customizing instance and subclass checks
reference/datamodel 3.4.5. Emulating callable objects
reference/datamodel 3.4.6. Emulating container types
reference/datamodel 3.4.7. Additional methods for emulation of sequence types
reference/datamodel 3.4.8. Emulating numeric types
reference/datamodel 3.4.9. Coercion rules
reference/datamodel 3.4.10. With Statement Context Managers
reference/datamodel 3.4.11. Special method lookup for old-style classes
reference/datamodel 3.4.12. Special method lookup for new-style classes
reference/executionmodel 4. Execution model
reference/executionmodel 4.1. Naming and binding
reference/executionmodel 4.1.1. Interaction with dynamic features
reference/executionmodel 4.2. Exceptions
reference/expressions 5. Expressions
reference/expressions 5.1. Arithmetic conversions
reference/expressions 5.2. Atoms
reference/expressions 5.2.1. Identifiers (Names)
reference/expressions 5.2.2. Literals
reference/expressions 5.2.3. Parenthesized forms
reference/expressions 5.2.4. List displays
reference/expressions 5.2.5. Displays for sets and dictionaries
reference/expressions 5.2.6. Generator expressions
reference/expressions 5.2.7. Dictionary displays
reference/expressions 5.2.8. Set displays
reference/expressions 5.2.9. String conversions
reference/expressions 5.2.10. Yield expressions
reference/expressions Generator-iterator methods
reference/expressions 5.3. Primaries
reference/expressions 5.3.1. Attribute references
reference/expressions 5.3.2. Subscriptions
reference/expressions 5.3.3. Slicings
reference/expressions 5.3.4. Calls
reference/expressions 5.4. The power operator
reference/expressions 5.5. Unary arithmetic and bitwise operations
reference/expressions 5.6. Binary arithmetic operations
reference/expressions 5.7. Shifting operations
reference/expressions 5.8. Binary bitwise operations
reference/expressions 5.9. Comparisons
reference/expressions 5.10. Boolean operations
reference/expressions 5.11. Conditional Expressions
reference/expressions 5.12. Lambdas
reference/expressions 5.13. Expression lists
reference/expressions 5.14. Evaluation order
reference/expressions 5.15. Operator precedence
reference/simple_stmts 6. Simple statements
reference/simple_stmts 6.1. Expression statements
reference/simple_stmts 6.2. Assignment statements
reference/simple_stmts 6.2.1. Augmented assignment statements
reference/simple_stmts 6.3. The assert statement
reference/simple_stmts 6.4. The pass statement
reference/simple_stmts 6.5. The del statement
reference/simple_stmts 6.6. The print statement
reference/simple_stmts 6.7. The return statement
reference/simple_stmts 6.8. The yield statement
reference/simple_stmts 6.9. The raise statement
reference/simple_stmts 6.10. The break statement
reference/simple_stmts 6.11. The continue statement
reference/simple_stmts 6.12. The import statement
reference/simple_stmts 6.12.1. Future statements
reference/simple_stmts 6.13. The global statement
reference/simple_stmts 6.14. The exec statement
reference/compound_stmts 7. Compound statements
reference/compound_stmts 7.1. The if statement
reference/compound_stmts 7.2. The while statement
reference/compound_stmts 7.3. The for statement
reference/compound_stmts 7.4. The try statement
reference/compound_stmts 7.5. The with statement
reference/compound_stmts 7.6. Function definitions
reference/compound_stmts 7.7. Class definitions
reference/toplevel_components 8. Top-level components
reference/toplevel_components 8.1. Complete Python programs
reference/toplevel_components 8.2. File input
reference/toplevel_components 8.3. Interactive input
reference/toplevel_components 8.4. Expression input
reference/grammar 9. Full Grammar specification
library/index The Python Standard Library
library/intro 1. Introduction
library/functions 2. Built-in Functions
library/functions 3. Non-essential Built-in Functions
library/constants 4. Built-in Constants
library/constants 4.1. Constants added by the site module
library/stdtypes 5. Built-in Types
library/stdtypes 5.1. Truth Value Testing
library/stdtypes 5.2. Boolean Operations — and, or, not
library/stdtypes 5.3. Comparisons
library/stdtypes 5.4. Numeric Types — int, float, long, complex
library/stdtypes 5.4.1. Bitwise Operations on Integer Types
library/stdtypes 5.4.2. Additional Methods on Integer Types
library/stdtypes 5.4.3. Additional Methods on Float
library/stdtypes 5.5. Iterator Types
library/stdtypes 5.5.1. Generator Types
library/stdtypes 5.6. Sequence Types — str, unicode, list, tuple, bytearray, buffer, xrange
library/stdtypes 5.6.1. String Methods
library/stdtypes 5.6.2. String Formatting Operations
library/stdtypes 5.6.3. XRange Type
library/stdtypes 5.6.4. Mutable Sequence Types
library/stdtypes 5.7. Set Types — set, frozenset
library/stdtypes 5.8. Mapping Types — dict
library/stdtypes 5.8.1. Dictionary view objects
library/stdtypes 5.9. File Objects
library/stdtypes 5.10. memoryview type
library/stdtypes 5.11. Context Manager Types
library/stdtypes 5.12. Other Built-in Types
library/stdtypes 5.12.1. Modules
library/stdtypes 5.12.2. Classes and Class Instances
library/stdtypes 5.12.3. Functions
library/stdtypes 5.12.4. Methods
library/stdtypes 5.12.5. Code Objects
library/stdtypes 5.12.6. Type Objects
library/stdtypes 5.12.7. The Null Object
library/stdtypes 5.12.8. The Ellipsis Object
library/stdtypes 5.12.9. The NotImplemented Object
library/stdtypes 5.12.10. Boolean Values
library/stdtypes 5.12.11. Internal Objects
library/stdtypes 5.13. Special Attributes
library/exceptions 6. Built-in Exceptions
library/exceptions 6.1. Exception hierarchy
library/strings 7. String Services
library/string 7.1. string — Common string operations
library/string 7.1.1. String constants
library/string 7.1.2. String Formatting
library/string 7.1.3. Format String Syntax
library/string Format Specification Mini-Language
library/string Format examples
library/string 7.1.4. Template strings
library/string 7.1.5. String functions
library/string 7.1.6. Deprecated string functions
library/re 7.2. re — Regular expression operations
library/re 7.2.1. Regular Expression Syntax
library/re 7.2.2. Module Contents
library/re 7.2.3. Regular Expression Objects
library/re 7.2.4. Match Objects
library/re 7.2.5. Examples
library/re Checking For a Pair
library/re Simulating scanf()
library/re search() vs. match()
library/re Making a Phonebook
library/re Text Munging
library/re Finding all Adverbs
library/re Finding all Adverbs and their Positions
library/re Raw String Notation
library/struct 7.3. struct — Interpret strings as packed binary data
library/struct 7.3.1. Functions and Exceptions
library/struct 7.3.2. Format Strings
library/struct Byte Order, Size, and Alignment
library/struct Format Characters
library/struct Examples
library/struct 7.3.3. Classes
library/difflib 7.4. difflib — Helpers for computing deltas
library/difflib 7.4.1. SequenceMatcher Objects
library/difflib 7.4.2. SequenceMatcher Examples
library/difflib 7.4.3. Differ Objects
library/difflib 7.4.4. Differ Example
library/difflib 7.4.5. A command-line interface to difflib
library/stringio 7.5. StringIO — Read and write strings as files
library/stringio 7.6. cStringIO — Faster version of StringIO
library/textwrap 7.7. textwrap — Text wrapping and filling
library/codecs 7.8. codecs — Codec registry and base classes
library/codecs 7.8.1. Codec Base Classes
library/codecs Codec Objects
library/codecs IncrementalEncoder Objects
library/codecs IncrementalDecoder Objects
library/codecs StreamWriter Objects
library/codecs StreamReader Objects
library/codecs StreamReaderWriter Objects
library/codecs StreamRecoder Objects
library/codecs 7.8.2. Encodings and Unicode
library/codecs 7.8.3. Standard Encodings
library/codecs 7.8.4. Python Specific Encodings
library/codecs 7.8.5. encodings.idna — Internationalized Domain Names in Applications
library/codecs 7.8.6. encodings.utf_8_sig — UTF-8 codec with BOM signature
library/unicodedata 7.9. unicodedata — Unicode Database
library/stringprep 7.10. stringprep — Internet String Preparation
library/fpformat 7.11. fpformat — Floating point conversions
library/datatypes 8. Data Types
library/datetime 8.1. datetime — Basic date and time types
library/datetime 8.1.1. Available Types
library/datetime 8.1.2. timedelta Objects
library/datetime 8.1.3. date Objects
library/datetime 8.1.4. datetime Objects
library/datetime 8.1.5. time Objects
library/datetime 8.1.6. tzinfo Objects
library/datetime 8.1.7. strftime() and strptime() Behavior
library/calendar 8.2. calendar — General calendar-related functions
library/collections 8.3. collections — High-performance container datatypes
library/collections 8.3.1. Counter objects
library/collections 8.3.2. deque objects
library/collections deque Recipes
library/collections 8.3.3. defaultdict objects
library/collections defaultdict Examples
library/collections 8.3.4. namedtuple() Factory Function for Tuples with Named Fields
library/collections 8.3.5. OrderedDict objects
library/collections OrderedDict Examples and Recipes
library/collections 8.3.6. Collections Abstract Base Classes
library/heapq 8.4. heapq — Heap queue algorithm
library/heapq 8.4.1. Basic Examples
library/heapq 8.4.2. Priority Queue Implementation Notes
library/heapq 8.4.3. Theory
library/bisect 8.5. bisect — Array bisection algorithm
library/bisect 8.5.1. Searching Sorted Lists
library/bisect 8.5.2. Other Examples
library/array 8.6. array — Efficient arrays of numeric values
library/sets 8.7. sets — Unordered collections of unique elements
library/sets 8.7.1. Set Objects
library/sets 8.7.2. Example
library/sets 8.7.3. Protocol for automatic conversion to immutable
library/sets 8.7.4. Comparison to the built-in set types
library/sched 8.8. sched — Event scheduler
library/sched 8.8.1. Scheduler Objects
library/mutex 8.9. mutex — Mutual exclusion support
library/mutex 8.9.1. Mutex Objects
library/queue 8.10. Queue — A synchronized queue class
library/queue 8.10.1. Queue Objects
library/weakref 8.11. weakref — Weak references
library/weakref 8.11.1. Weak Reference Objects
library/weakref 8.11.2. Example
library/userdict 8.12. UserDict — Class wrapper for dictionary objects
library/userdict 8.13. UserList — Class wrapper for list objects
library/userdict 8.14. UserString — Class wrapper for string objects
library/types 8.15. types — Names for built-in types
library/new 8.16. new — Creation of runtime internal objects
library/copy 8.17. copy — Shallow and deep copy operations
library/pprint 8.18. pprint — Data pretty printer
library/pprint 8.18.1. PrettyPrinter Objects
library/pprint 8.18.2. pprint Example
library/repr 8.19. repr — Alternate repr() implementation
library/repr 8.19.1. Repr Objects
library/repr 8.19.2. Subclassing Repr Objects
library/numeric 9. Numeric and Mathematical Modules
library/numbers 9.1. numbers — Numeric abstract base classes
library/numbers 9.1.1. The numeric tower
library/numbers 9.1.2. Notes for type implementors
library/numbers Adding More Numeric ABCs
library/numbers Implementing the arithmetic operations
library/math 9.2. math — Mathematical functions
library/math 9.2.1. Number-theoretic and representation functions
library/math 9.2.2. Power and logarithmic functions
library/math 9.2.3. Trigonometric functions
library/math 9.2.4. Angular conversion
library/math 9.2.5. Hyperbolic functions
library/math 9.2.6. Special functions
library/math 9.2.7. Constants
library/cmath 9.3. cmath — Mathematical functions for complex numbers
library/cmath 9.3.1. Conversions to and from polar coordinates
library/cmath 9.3.2. Power and logarithmic functions
library/cmath 9.3.3. Trigonometric functions
library/cmath 9.3.4. Hyperbolic functions
library/cmath 9.3.5. Classification functions
library/cmath 9.3.6. Constants
library/decimal 9.4. decimal — Decimal fixed point and floating point arithmetic
library/decimal 9.4.1. Quick-start Tutorial
library/decimal 9.4.2. Decimal objects
library/decimal Logical operands
library/decimal 9.4.3. Context objects
library/decimal 9.4.4. Signals
library/decimal 9.4.5. Floating Point Notes
library/decimal Mitigating round-off error with increased precision
library/decimal Special values
library/decimal 9.4.6. Working with threads
library/decimal 9.4.7. Recipes
library/decimal 9.4.8. Decimal FAQ
library/fractions 9.5. fractions — Rational numbers
library/random 9.6. random — Generate pseudo-random numbers
library/itertools 9.7. itertools — Functions creating iterators for efficient looping
library/itertools 9.7.1. Itertool functions
library/itertools 9.7.2. Recipes
library/functools 9.8. functools — Higher-order functions and operations on callable objects
library/functools 9.8.1. partial Objects
library/operator 9.9. operator — Standard operators as functions
library/operator 9.9.1. Mapping Operators to Functions
library/filesys 10. File and Directory Access
library/os 10.1. os.path — Common pathname manipulations
library/fileinput 10.2. fileinput — Iterate over lines from multiple input streams
library/stat 10.3. stat — Interpreting stat() results
library/statvfs 10.4. statvfs — Constants used with os.statvfs()
library/filecmp 10.5. filecmp — File and Directory Comparisons
library/filecmp 10.5.1. The dircmp class
library/tempfile 10.6. tempfile — Generate temporary files and directories
library/glob 10.7. glob — Unix style pathname pattern expansion
library/fnmatch 10.8. fnmatch — Unix filename pattern matching
library/linecache 10.9. linecache — Random access to text lines
library/shutil 10.10. shutil — High-level file operations
library/shutil 10.10.1. Directory and files operations
library/shutil copytree example
library/shutil 10.10.2. Archiving operations
library/shutil Archiving example
library/dircache 10.11. dircache — Cached directory listings
library/macpath 10.12. macpath — Mac OS 9 path manipulation functions
library/persistence 11. Data Persistence
library/pickle 11.1. pickle — Python object serialization
library/pickle 11.1.1. Relationship to other Python modules
library/pickle 11.1.2. Data stream format
library/pickle 11.1.3. Usage
library/pickle 11.1.4. What can be pickled and unpickled?
library/pickle 11.1.5. The pickle protocol
library/pickle Pickling and unpickling normal class instances
library/pickle Pickling and unpickling extension types
library/pickle Pickling and unpickling external objects
library/pickle 11.1.6. Subclassing Unpicklers
library/pickle 11.1.7. Example
library/pickle 11.2. cPickle — A faster pickle
library/copy_reg 11.3. copy_reg — Register pickle support functions
library/copy_reg 11.3.1. Example
library/shelve 11.4. shelve — Python object persistence
library/shelve 11.4.1. Restrictions
library/shelve 11.4.2. Example
library/marshal 11.5. marshal — Internal Python object serialization
library/anydbm 11.6. anydbm — Generic access to DBM-style databases
library/whichdb 11.7. whichdb — Guess which DBM module created a database
library/dbm 11.8. dbm — Simple “database” interface
library/gdbm 11.9. gdbm — GNU’s reinterpretation of dbm
library/dbhash 11.10. dbhash — DBM-style interface to the BSD database library
library/dbhash 11.10.1. Database Objects
library/bsddb 11.11. bsddb — Interface to Berkeley DB library
library/bsddb 11.11.1. Hash, BTree and Record Objects
library/dumbdbm 11.12. dumbdbm — Portable DBM implementation
library/dumbdbm 11.12.1. Dumbdbm Objects
library/sqlite3 11.13. sqlite3 — DB-API 2.0 interface for SQLite databases
library/sqlite3 11.13.1. Module functions and constants
library/sqlite3 11.13.2. Connection Objects
library/sqlite3 11.13.3. Cursor Objects
library/sqlite3 11.13.4. Row Objects
library/sqlite3 11.13.5. SQLite and Python types
library/sqlite3 Introduction
library/sqlite3 Using adapters to store additional Python types in SQLite databases
library/sqlite3 Letting your object adapt itself
library/sqlite3 Registering an adapter callable
library/sqlite3 Converting SQLite values to custom Python types
library/sqlite3 Default adapters and converters
library/sqlite3 11.13.6. Controlling Transactions
library/sqlite3 11.13.7. Using sqlite3 efficiently
library/sqlite3 Using shortcut methods
library/sqlite3 Accessing columns by name instead of by index
library/sqlite3 Using the connection as a context manager
library/sqlite3 11.13.8. Common issues
library/sqlite3 Multithreading
library/archiving 12. Data Compression and Archiving
library/zlib 12.1. zlib — Compression compatible with gzip
library/gzip 12.2. gzip — Support for gzip files
library/gzip 12.2.1. Examples of usage
library/bz2 12.3. bz2 — Compression compatible with bzip2
library/bz2 12.3.1. (De)compression of files
library/bz2 12.3.2. Sequential (de)compression
library/bz2 12.3.3. One-shot (de)compression
library/zipfile 12.4. zipfile — Work with ZIP archives
library/zipfile 12.4.1. ZipFile Objects
library/zipfile 12.4.2. PyZipFile Objects
library/zipfile 12.4.3. ZipInfo Objects
library/tarfile 12.5. tarfile — Read and write tar archive files
library/tarfile 12.5.1. TarFile Objects
library/tarfile 12.5.2. TarInfo Objects
library/tarfile 12.5.3. Examples
library/tarfile 12.5.4. Supported tar formats
library/tarfile 12.5.5. Unicode issues
library/fileformats 13. File Formats
library/csv 13.1. csv — CSV File Reading and Writing
library/csv 13.1.1. Module Contents
library/csv 13.1.2. Dialects and Formatting Parameters
library/csv 13.1.3. Reader Objects
library/csv 13.1.4. Writer Objects
library/csv 13.1.5. Examples
library/configparser 13.2. ConfigParser — Configuration file parser
library/configparser 13.2.1. RawConfigParser Objects
library/configparser 13.2.2. ConfigParser Objects
library/configparser 13.2.3. SafeConfigParser Objects
library/configparser 13.2.4. Examples
library/robotparser 13.3. robotparser — Parser for robots.txt
library/netrc 13.4. netrc — netrc file processing
library/netrc 13.4.1. netrc Objects
library/xdrlib 13.5. xdrlib — Encode and decode XDR data
library/xdrlib 13.5.1. Packer Objects
library/xdrlib 13.5.2. Unpacker Objects
library/xdrlib 13.5.3. Exceptions
library/plistlib 13.6. plistlib — Generate and parse Mac OS X .plist files
library/plistlib 13.6.1. Examples
library/crypto 14. Cryptographic Services
library/hashlib 14.1. hashlib — Secure hashes and message digests
library/hashlib 14.1.1. Key Derivation Function
library/hmac 14.2. hmac — Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication
library/md5 14.3. md5 — MD5 message digest algorithm
library/sha 14.4. sha — SHA-1 message digest algorithm
library/allos 15. Generic Operating System Services
library/os 15.1. os — Miscellaneous operating system interfaces
library/os 15.1.1. Process Parameters
library/os 15.1.2. File Object Creation
library/os 15.1.3. File Descriptor Operations
library/os open() flag constants
library/os 15.1.4. Files and Directories
library/os 15.1.5. Process Management
library/os 15.1.6. Miscellaneous System Information
library/os 15.1.7. Miscellaneous Functions
library/io 15.2. io — Core tools for working with streams
library/io 15.2.1. Module Interface
library/io 15.2.2. I/O Base Classes
library/io 15.2.3. Raw File I/O
library/io 15.2.4. Buffered Streams
library/io 15.2.5. Text I/O
library/io 15.2.6. Advanced topics
library/io Performance
library/io Binary I/O
library/io Text I/O
library/io Multi-threading
library/io Reentrancy
library/time 15.3. time — Time access and conversions
library/argparse 15.4. argparse — Parser for command-line options, arguments and sub-commands
library/argparse 15.4.1. Example
library/argparse Creating a parser
library/argparse Adding arguments
library/argparse Parsing arguments
library/argparse 15.4.2. ArgumentParser objects
library/argparse prog
library/argparse usage
library/argparse description
library/argparse epilog
library/argparse parents
library/argparse formatter_class
library/argparse prefix_chars
library/argparse fromfile_prefix_chars
library/argparse argument_default
library/argparse conflict_handler
library/argparse add_help
library/argparse 15.4.3. The add_argument() method
library/argparse name or flags
library/argparse action
library/argparse nargs
library/argparse const
library/argparse default
library/argparse type
library/argparse choices
library/argparse required
library/argparse help
library/argparse metavar
library/argparse dest
library/argparse Action classes
library/argparse 15.4.4. The parse_args() method
library/argparse Option value syntax
library/argparse Invalid arguments
library/argparse Arguments containing -
library/argparse Argument abbreviations (prefix matching)
library/argparse Beyond sys.argv
library/argparse The Namespace object
library/argparse 15.4.5. Other utilities
library/argparse Sub-commands
library/argparse FileType objects
library/argparse Argument groups
library/argparse Mutual exclusion
library/argparse Parser defaults
library/argparse Printing help
library/argparse Partial parsing
library/argparse Customizing file parsing
library/argparse Exiting methods
library/argparse 15.4.6. Upgrading optparse code
library/optparse 15.5. optparse — Parser for command line options
library/optparse 15.5.1. Background
library/optparse Terminology
library/optparse What are options for?
library/optparse What are positional arguments for?
library/optparse 15.5.2. Tutorial
library/optparse Understanding option actions
library/optparse The store action
library/optparse Handling boolean (flag) options
library/optparse Other actions
library/optparse Default values
library/optparse Generating help
library/optparse Grouping Options
library/optparse Printing a version string
library/optparse How optparse handles errors
library/optparse Putting it all together
library/optparse 15.5.3. Reference Guide
library/optparse Creating the parser
library/optparse Populating the parser
library/optparse Defining options
library/optparse Option attributes
library/optparse Standard option actions
library/optparse Standard option types
library/optparse Parsing arguments
library/optparse Querying and manipulating your option parser
library/optparse Conflicts between options
library/optparse Cleanup
library/optparse Other methods
library/optparse 15.5.4. Option Callbacks
library/optparse Defining a callback option
library/optparse How callbacks are called
library/optparse Raising errors in a callback
library/optparse Callback example 1: trivial callback
library/optparse Callback example 2: check option order
library/optparse Callback example 3: check option order (generalized)
library/optparse Callback example 4: check arbitrary condition
library/optparse Callback example 5: fixed arguments
library/optparse Callback example 6: variable arguments
library/optparse 15.5.5. Extending optparse
library/optparse Adding new types
library/optparse Adding new actions
library/getopt 15.6. getopt — C-style parser for command line options
library/logging 15.7. logging — Logging facility for Python
library/logging 15.7.1. Logger Objects
library/logging 15.7.2. Logging Levels
library/logging 15.7.3. Handler Objects
library/logging 15.7.4. Formatter Objects
library/logging 15.7.5. Filter Objects
library/logging 15.7.6. LogRecord Objects
library/logging 15.7.7. LogRecord attributes
library/logging 15.7.8. LoggerAdapter Objects
library/logging 15.7.9. Thread Safety
library/logging 15.7.10. Module-Level Functions
library/logging 15.7.11. Integration with the warnings module
library/logging 15.8. logging.config — Logging configuration
library/logging 15.8.1. Configuration functions
library/logging 15.8.2. Configuration dictionary schema
library/logging Dictionary Schema Details
library/logging Incremental Configuration
library/logging Object connections
library/logging User-defined objects
library/logging Access to external objects
library/logging Access to internal objects
library/logging Import resolution and custom importers
library/logging 15.8.3. Configuration file format
library/logging 15.9. logging.handlers — Logging handlers
library/logging 15.9.1. StreamHandler
library/logging 15.9.2. FileHandler
library/logging 15.9.3. NullHandler
library/logging 15.9.4. WatchedFileHandler
library/logging 15.9.5. RotatingFileHandler
library/logging 15.9.6. TimedRotatingFileHandler
library/logging 15.9.7. SocketHandler
library/logging 15.9.8. DatagramHandler
library/logging 15.9.9. SysLogHandler
library/logging 15.9.10. NTEventLogHandler
library/logging 15.9.11. SMTPHandler
library/logging 15.9.12. MemoryHandler
library/logging 15.9.13. HTTPHandler
library/getpass 15.10. getpass — Portable password input
library/curses 15.11. curses — Terminal handling for character-cell displays
library/curses 15.11.1. Functions
library/curses 15.11.2. Window Objects
library/curses 15.11.3. Constants
library/curses 15.12. curses.textpad — Text input widget for curses programs
library/curses 15.12.1. Textbox objects
library/curses 15.13. curses.ascii — Utilities for ASCII characters
library/curses 15.14. curses.panel — A panel stack extension for curses
library/curses 15.14.1. Functions
library/curses 15.14.2. Panel Objects
library/platform 15.15. platform — Access to underlying platform’s identifying data
library/platform 15.15.1. Cross Platform
library/platform 15.15.2. Java Platform
library/platform 15.15.3. Windows Platform
library/platform Win95/98 specific
library/platform 15.15.4. Mac OS Platform
library/platform 15.15.5. Unix Platforms
library/errno 15.16. errno — Standard errno system symbols
library/ctypes 15.17. ctypes — A foreign function library for Python
library/ctypes 15.17.1. ctypes tutorial
library/ctypes Loading dynamic link libraries
library/ctypes Accessing functions from loaded dlls
library/ctypes Calling functions
library/ctypes Fundamental data types
library/ctypes Calling functions, continued
library/ctypes Calling functions with your own custom data types
library/ctypes Specifying the required argument types (function prototypes)
library/ctypes Return types
library/ctypes Passing pointers (or: passing parameters by reference)
library/ctypes Structures and unions
library/ctypes Structure/union alignment and byte order
library/ctypes Bit fields in structures and unions
library/ctypes Arrays
library/ctypes Pointers
library/ctypes Type conversions
library/ctypes Incomplete Types
library/ctypes Callback functions
library/ctypes Accessing values exported from dlls
library/ctypes Surprises
library/ctypes Variable-sized data types
library/ctypes 15.17.2. ctypes reference
library/ctypes Finding shared libraries
library/ctypes Loading shared libraries
library/ctypes Foreign functions
library/ctypes Function prototypes
library/ctypes Utility functions
library/ctypes Data types
library/ctypes Fundamental data types
library/ctypes Structured data types
library/ctypes Arrays and pointers
library/someos 16. Optional Operating System Services
library/select 16.1. select — Waiting for I/O completion
library/select 16.1.1. Edge and Level Trigger Polling (epoll) Objects
library/select 16.1.2. Polling Objects
library/select 16.1.3. Kqueue Objects
library/select 16.1.4. Kevent Objects
library/threading 16.2. threading — Higher-level threading interface
library/threading 16.2.1. Thread Objects
library/threading 16.2.2. Lock Objects
library/threading 16.2.3. RLock Objects
library/threading 16.2.4. Condition Objects
library/threading 16.2.5. Semaphore Objects
library/threading Semaphore Example
library/threading 16.2.6. Event Objects
library/threading 16.2.7. Timer Objects
library/threading 16.2.8. Using locks, conditions, and semaphores in the with statement
library/threading 16.2.9. Importing in threaded code
library/thread 16.3. thread — Multiple threads of control
library/dummy_threading 16.4. dummy_threading — Drop-in replacement for the threading module
library/dummy_thread 16.5. dummy_thread — Drop-in replacement for the thread module
library/multiprocessing 16.6. multiprocessing — Process-based “threading” interface
library/multiprocessing 16.6.1. Introduction
library/multiprocessing The Process class
library/multiprocessing Exchanging objects between processes
library/multiprocessing Synchronization between processes
library/multiprocessing Sharing state between processes
library/multiprocessing Using a pool of workers
library/multiprocessing 16.6.2. Reference
library/multiprocessing Process and exceptions
library/multiprocessing Pipes and Queues
library/multiprocessing Miscellaneous
library/multiprocessing Connection Objects
library/multiprocessing Synchronization primitives
library/multiprocessing Shared ctypes Objects
library/multiprocessing The multiprocessing.sharedctypes module
library/multiprocessing Managers
library/multiprocessing Namespace objects
library/multiprocessing Customized managers
library/multiprocessing Using a remote manager
library/multiprocessing Proxy Objects
library/multiprocessing Cleanup
library/multiprocessing Process Pools
library/multiprocessing Listeners and Clients
library/multiprocessing Address Formats
library/multiprocessing Authentication keys
library/multiprocessing Logging
library/multiprocessing The multiprocessing.dummy module
library/multiprocessing 16.6.3. Programming guidelines
library/multiprocessing All platforms
library/multiprocessing Windows
library/multiprocessing 16.6.4. Examples
library/mmap 16.7. mmap — Memory-mapped file support
library/readline 16.8. readline — GNU readline interface
library/readline 16.8.1. Example
library/rlcompleter 16.9. rlcompleter — Completion function for GNU readline
library/rlcompleter 16.9.1. Completer Objects
library/ipc 17. Interprocess Communication and Networking
library/subprocess 17.1. subprocess — Subprocess management
library/subprocess 17.1.1. Using the subprocess Module
library/subprocess Frequently Used Arguments
library/subprocess Popen Constructor
library/subprocess Exceptions
library/subprocess Security
library/subprocess 17.1.2. Popen Objects
library/subprocess 17.1.3. Windows Popen Helpers
library/subprocess Constants
library/subprocess 17.1.4. Replacing Older Functions with the subprocess Module
library/subprocess Replacing /bin/sh shell backquote
library/subprocess Replacing shell pipeline
library/subprocess Replacing os.system()
library/subprocess Replacing the os.spawn family
library/subprocess Replacing os.popen(), os.popen2(), os.popen3()
library/subprocess Replacing functions from the popen2 module
library/subprocess 17.1.5. Notes
library/subprocess Converting an argument sequence to a string on Windows
library/socket 17.2. socket — Low-level networking interface
library/socket 17.2.1. Socket Objects
library/socket 17.2.2. Example
library/ssl 17.3. ssl — TLS/SSL wrapper for socket objects
library/ssl 17.3.1. Functions, Constants, and Exceptions
library/ssl Socket creation
library/ssl Context creation
library/ssl Random generation
library/ssl Certificate handling
library/ssl Constants
library/ssl 17.3.2. SSL Sockets
library/ssl 17.3.3. SSL Contexts
library/ssl 17.3.4. Certificates
library/ssl Certificate chains
library/ssl CA certificates
library/ssl Combined key and certificate
library/ssl Self-signed certificates
library/ssl 17.3.5. Examples
library/ssl Testing for SSL support
library/ssl Client-side operation
library/ssl Server-side operation
library/ssl 17.3.6. Notes on non-blocking sockets
library/ssl 17.3.7. Security considerations
library/ssl Best defaults
library/ssl Manual settings
library/ssl Verifying certificates
library/ssl Protocol versions
library/ssl Cipher selection
library/ssl Multi-processing
library/signal 17.4. signal — Set handlers for asynchronous events
library/signal 17.4.1. Example
library/popen2 17.5. popen2 — Subprocesses with accessible I/O streams
library/popen2 17.5.1. Popen3 and Popen4 Objects
library/popen2 17.5.2. Flow Control Issues
library/asyncore 17.6. asyncore — Asynchronous socket handler
library/asyncore 17.6.1. asyncore Example basic HTTP client
library/asyncore 17.6.2. asyncore Example basic echo server
library/asynchat 17.7. asynchat — Asynchronous socket command/response handler
library/asynchat 17.7.1. asynchat - Auxiliary Classes
library/asynchat 17.7.2. asynchat Example
library/netdata 18. Internet Data Handling
library/email 18.1. email — An email and MIME handling package
library/email 18.1.1. email.message: Representing an email message
library/email 18.1.2. email.parser: Parsing email messages
library/email FeedParser API
library/email Parser class API
library/email Additional notes
library/email 18.1.3. email.generator: Generating MIME documents
library/email 18.1.4. email.mime: Creating email and MIME objects from scratch
library/email 18.1.5. email.header: Internationalized headers
library/email 18.1.6. email.charset: Representing character sets
library/email 18.1.7. email.encoders: Encoders
library/email 18.1.8. email.errors: Exception and Defect classes
library/email 18.1.9. email.utils: Miscellaneous utilities
library/email 18.1.10. email.iterators: Iterators
library/email-examples 18.1.11. email: Examples
library/email 18.1.12. Package History
library/email 18.1.13. Differences from mimelib
library/json 18.2. json — JSON encoder and decoder
library/json 18.2.1. Basic Usage
library/json 18.2.2. Encoders and Decoders
library/json 18.2.3. Standard Compliance
library/json Character Encodings
library/json Top-level Non-Object, Non-Array Values
library/json Infinite and NaN Number Values
library/json Repeated Names Within an Object
library/mailcap 18.3. mailcap — Mailcap file handling
library/mailbox 18.4. mailbox — Manipulate mailboxes in various formats
library/mailbox 18.4.1. Mailbox objects
library/mailbox Maildir
library/mailbox mbox
library/mailbox MH
library/mailbox Babyl
library/mailbox MMDF
library/mailbox 18.4.2. Message objects
library/mailbox MaildirMessage
library/mailbox mboxMessage
library/mailbox MHMessage
library/mailbox BabylMessage
library/mailbox MMDFMessage
library/mailbox 18.4.3. Exceptions
library/mailbox 18.4.4. Deprecated classes and methods
library/mailbox 18.4.5. Examples
library/mhlib 18.5. mhlib — Access to MH mailboxes
library/mhlib 18.5.1. MH Objects
library/mhlib 18.5.2. Folder Objects
library/mhlib 18.5.3. Message Objects
library/mimetools 18.6. mimetools — Tools for parsing MIME messages
library/mimetools 18.6.1. Additional Methods of Message Objects
library/mimetypes 18.7. mimetypes — Map filenames to MIME types
library/mimetypes 18.7.1. MimeTypes Objects
library/mimewriter 18.8. MimeWriter — Generic MIME file writer
library/mimewriter 18.8.1. MimeWriter Objects
library/mimify 18.9. mimify — MIME processing of mail messages
library/multifile 18.10. multifile — Support for files containing distinct parts
library/multifile 18.10.1. MultiFile Objects
library/multifile 18.10.2. MultiFile Example
library/rfc822 18.11. rfc822 — Parse RFC 2822 mail headers
library/rfc822 18.11.1. Message Objects
library/rfc822 18.11.2. AddressList Objects
library/base64 18.12. base64 — RFC 3548: Base16, Base32, Base64 Data Encodings
library/binhex 18.13. binhex — Encode and decode binhex4 files
library/binhex 18.13.1. Notes
library/binascii 18.14. binascii — Convert between binary and ASCII
library/quopri 18.15. quopri — Encode and decode MIME quoted-printable data
library/uu 18.16. uu — Encode and decode uuencode files
library/markup 19. Structured Markup Processing Tools
library/htmlparser 19.1. HTMLParser — Simple HTML and XHTML parser
library/htmlparser 19.1.1. Example HTML Parser Application
library/htmlparser 19.1.2. HTMLParser Methods
library/htmlparser 19.1.3. Examples
library/sgmllib 19.2. sgmllib — Simple SGML parser
library/htmllib 19.3. htmllib — A parser for HTML documents
library/htmllib 19.3.1. HTMLParser Objects
library/htmllib 19.4. htmlentitydefs — Definitions of HTML general entities
library/xml 19.5. XML Processing Modules
library/xml 19.6. XML vulnerabilities
library/xml 19.6.1. defused packages
library/xml 19.7. xml.etree.ElementTree — The ElementTree XML API
library/xml 19.7.1. Tutorial
library/xml XML tree and elements
library/xml Parsing XML
library/xml Finding interesting elements
library/xml Modifying an XML File
library/xml Building XML documents
library/xml Additional resources
library/xml 19.7.2. XPath support
library/xml Example
library/xml Supported XPath syntax
library/xml 19.7.3. Reference
library/xml Functions
library/xml Element Objects
library/xml ElementTree Objects
library/xml QName Objects
library/xml TreeBuilder Objects
library/xml XMLParser Objects
library/xml 19.8. xml.dom — The Document Object Model API
library/xml 19.8.1. Module Contents
library/xml 19.8.2. Objects in the DOM
library/xml DOMImplementation Objects
library/xml Node Objects
library/xml NodeList Objects
library/xml DocumentType Objects
library/xml Document Objects
library/xml Element Objects
library/xml Attr Objects
library/xml NamedNodeMap Objects
library/xml Comment Objects
library/xml Text and CDATASection Objects
library/xml ProcessingInstruction Objects
library/xml Exceptions
library/xml 19.8.3. Conformance
library/xml Type Mapping
library/xml Accessor Methods
library/xml 19.9. xml.dom.minidom — Minimal DOM implementation
library/xml 19.9.1. DOM Objects
library/xml 19.9.2. DOM Example
library/xml 19.9.3. minidom and the DOM standard
library/xml 19.10. xml.dom.pulldom — Support for building partial DOM trees
library/xml 19.10.1. DOMEventStream Objects
library/xml 19.11. xml.sax — Support for SAX2 parsers
library/xml 19.11.1. SAXException Objects
library/xml 19.12. xml.sax.handler — Base classes for SAX handlers
library/xml 19.12.1. ContentHandler Objects
library/xml 19.12.2. DTDHandler Objects
library/xml 19.12.3. EntityResolver Objects
library/xml 19.12.4. ErrorHandler Objects
library/xml 19.13. xml.sax.saxutils — SAX Utilities
library/xml 19.14. xml.sax.xmlreader — Interface for XML parsers
library/xml 19.14.1. XMLReader Objects
library/xml 19.14.2. IncrementalParser Objects
library/xml 19.14.3. Locator Objects
library/xml 19.14.4. InputSource Objects
library/xml 19.14.5. The Attributes Interface
library/xml 19.14.6. The AttributesNS Interface
library/pyexpat 19.15. xml.parsers.expat — Fast XML parsing using Expat
library/pyexpat 19.15.1. XMLParser Objects
library/pyexpat 19.15.2. ExpatError Exceptions
library/pyexpat 19.15.3. Example
library/pyexpat 19.15.4. Content Model Descriptions
library/pyexpat 19.15.5. Expat error constants
library/internet 20. Internet Protocols and Support
library/webbrowser 20.1. webbrowser — Convenient Web-browser controller
library/webbrowser 20.1.1. Browser Controller Objects
library/cgi 20.2. cgi — Common Gateway Interface support
library/cgi 20.2.1. Introduction
library/cgi 20.2.2. Using the cgi module
library/cgi 20.2.3. Higher Level Interface
library/cgi 20.2.4. Old classes
library/cgi 20.2.5. Functions
library/cgi 20.2.6. Caring about security
library/cgi 20.2.7. Installing your CGI script on a Unix system
library/cgi 20.2.8. Testing your CGI script
library/cgi 20.2.9. Debugging CGI scripts
library/cgi 20.2.10. Common problems and solutions
library/cgitb 20.3. cgitb — Traceback manager for CGI scripts
library/wsgiref 20.4. wsgiref — WSGI Utilities and Reference Implementation
library/wsgiref 20.4.1. wsgiref.util – WSGI environment utilities
library/wsgiref 20.4.2. wsgiref.headers – WSGI response header tools
library/wsgiref 20.4.3. wsgiref.simple_server – a simple WSGI HTTP server
library/wsgiref 20.4.4. wsgiref.validate — WSGI conformance checker
library/wsgiref 20.4.5. wsgiref.handlers – server/gateway base classes
library/wsgiref 20.4.6. Examples
library/urllib 20.5. urllib — Open arbitrary resources by URL
library/urllib 20.5.1. High-level interface
library/urllib 20.5.2. Utility functions
library/urllib 20.5.3. URL Opener objects
library/urllib 20.5.4. urllib Restrictions
library/urllib 20.5.5. Examples
library/urllib2 20.6. urllib2 — extensible library for opening URLs
library/urllib2 20.6.1. Request Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.2. OpenerDirector Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.3. BaseHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.4. HTTPRedirectHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.5. HTTPCookieProcessor Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.6. ProxyHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.7. HTTPPasswordMgr Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.8. AbstractBasicAuthHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.9. HTTPBasicAuthHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.10. ProxyBasicAuthHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.11. AbstractDigestAuthHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.12. HTTPDigestAuthHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.13. ProxyDigestAuthHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.14. HTTPHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.15. HTTPSHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.16. FileHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.17. FTPHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.18. CacheFTPHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.19. UnknownHandler Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.20. HTTPErrorProcessor Objects
library/urllib2 20.6.21. Examples
library/httplib 20.7. httplib — HTTP protocol client
library/httplib 20.7.1. HTTPConnection Objects
library/httplib 20.7.2. HTTPResponse Objects
library/httplib 20.7.3. Examples
library/ftplib 20.8. ftplib — FTP protocol client
library/ftplib 20.8.1. FTP Objects
library/ftplib 20.8.2. FTP_TLS Objects
library/poplib 20.9. poplib — POP3 protocol client
library/poplib 20.9.1. POP3 Objects
library/poplib 20.9.2. POP3 Example
library/imaplib 20.10. imaplib — IMAP4 protocol client
library/imaplib 20.10.1. IMAP4 Objects
library/imaplib 20.10.2. IMAP4 Example
library/nntplib 20.11. nntplib — NNTP protocol client
library/nntplib 20.11.1. NNTP Objects
library/smtplib 20.12. smtplib — SMTP protocol client
library/smtplib 20.12.1. SMTP Objects
library/smtplib 20.12.2. SMTP Example
library/smtpd 20.13. smtpd — SMTP Server
library/smtpd 20.13.1. SMTPServer Objects
library/smtpd 20.13.2. DebuggingServer Objects
library/smtpd 20.13.3. PureProxy Objects
library/smtpd 20.13.4. MailmanProxy Objects
library/telnetlib 20.14. telnetlib — Telnet client
library/telnetlib 20.14.1. Telnet Objects
library/telnetlib 20.14.2. Telnet Example
library/uuid 20.15. uuid — UUID objects according to RFC 4122
library/uuid 20.15.1. Example
library/urlparse 20.16. urlparse — Parse URLs into components
library/urlparse 20.16.1. Results of urlparse() and urlsplit()
library/socketserver 20.17. SocketServer — A framework for network servers
library/socketserver 20.17.1. Server Creation Notes
library/socketserver 20.17.2. Server Objects
library/socketserver 20.17.3. RequestHandler Objects
library/socketserver 20.17.4. Examples
library/socketserver SocketServer.TCPServer Example
library/socketserver SocketServer.UDPServer Example
library/socketserver Asynchronous Mixins
library/basehttpserver 20.18. BaseHTTPServer — Basic HTTP server
library/basehttpserver 20.18.1. More examples
library/simplehttpserver 20.19. SimpleHTTPServer — Simple HTTP request handler
library/cgihttpserver 20.20. CGIHTTPServer — CGI-capable HTTP request handler
library/cookielib 20.21. cookielib — Cookie handling for HTTP clients
library/cookielib 20.21.1. CookieJar and FileCookieJar Objects
library/cookielib 20.21.2. FileCookieJar subclasses and co-operation with web browsers
library/cookielib 20.21.3. CookiePolicy Objects
library/cookielib 20.21.4. DefaultCookiePolicy Objects
library/cookielib 20.21.5. Cookie Objects
library/cookielib 20.21.6. Examples
library/cookie 20.22. Cookie — HTTP state management
library/cookie 20.22.1. Cookie Objects
library/cookie 20.22.2. Morsel Objects
library/cookie 20.22.3. Example
library/xmlrpclib 20.23. xmlrpclib — XML-RPC client access
library/xmlrpclib 20.23.1. ServerProxy Objects
library/xmlrpclib 20.23.2. Boolean Objects
library/xmlrpclib 20.23.3. DateTime Objects
library/xmlrpclib 20.23.4. Binary Objects
library/xmlrpclib 20.23.5. Fault Objects
library/xmlrpclib 20.23.6. ProtocolError Objects
library/xmlrpclib 20.23.7. MultiCall Objects
library/xmlrpclib 20.23.8. Convenience Functions
library/xmlrpclib 20.23.9. Example of Client Usage
library/xmlrpclib 20.23.10. Example of Client and Server Usage
library/simplexmlrpcserver 20.24. SimpleXMLRPCServer — Basic XML-RPC server
library/simplexmlrpcserver 20.24.1. SimpleXMLRPCServer Objects
library/simplexmlrpcserver SimpleXMLRPCServer Example
library/simplexmlrpcserver 20.24.2. CGIXMLRPCRequestHandler
library/docxmlrpcserver 20.25. DocXMLRPCServer — Self-documenting XML-RPC server
library/docxmlrpcserver 20.25.1. DocXMLRPCServer Objects
library/docxmlrpcserver 20.25.2. DocCGIXMLRPCRequestHandler
library/mm 21. Multimedia Services
library/audioop 21.1. audioop — Manipulate raw audio data
library/imageop 21.2. imageop — Manipulate raw image data
library/aifc 21.3. aifc — Read and write AIFF and AIFC files
library/sunau 21.4. sunau — Read and write Sun AU files
library/sunau 21.4.1. AU_read Objects
library/sunau 21.4.2. AU_write Objects
library/wave 21.5. wave — Read and write WAV files
library/wave 21.5.1. Wave_read Objects
library/wave 21.5.2. Wave_write Objects
library/chunk 21.6. chunk — Read IFF chunked data
library/colorsys 21.7. colorsys — Conversions between color systems
library/imghdr 21.8. imghdr — Determine the type of an image
library/sndhdr 21.9. sndhdr — Determine type of sound file
library/ossaudiodev 21.10. ossaudiodev — Access to OSS-compatible audio devices
library/ossaudiodev 21.10.1. Audio Device Objects
library/ossaudiodev 21.10.2. Mixer Device Objects
library/i18n 22. Internationalization
library/gettext 22.1. gettext — Multilingual internationalization services
library/gettext 22.1.1. GNU gettext API
library/gettext 22.1.2. Class-based API
library/gettext The NullTranslations class
library/gettext The GNUTranslations class
library/gettext Solaris message catalog support
library/gettext The Catalog constructor
library/gettext 22.1.3. Internationalizing your programs and modules
library/gettext Localizing your module
library/gettext Localizing your application
library/gettext Changing languages on the fly
library/gettext Deferred translations
library/gettext gettext() vs. lgettext()
library/gettext 22.1.4. Acknowledgements
library/locale 22.2. locale — Internationalization services
library/locale 22.2.1. Background, details, hints, tips and caveats
library/locale 22.2.2. For extension writers and programs that embed Python
library/locale 22.2.3. Access to message catalogs
library/frameworks 23. Program Frameworks
library/cmd 23.1. cmd — Support for line-oriented command interpreters
library/cmd 23.1.1. Cmd Objects
library/shlex 23.2. shlex — Simple lexical analysis
library/shlex 23.2.1. shlex Objects
library/shlex 23.2.2. Parsing Rules
library/tk 24. Graphical User Interfaces with Tk
library/tkinter 24.1. Tkinter — Python interface to Tcl/Tk
library/tkinter 24.1.1. Tkinter Modules
library/tkinter 24.1.2. Tkinter Life Preserver
library/tkinter How To Use This Section
library/tkinter A Simple Hello World Program
library/tkinter 24.1.3. A (Very) Quick Look at Tcl/Tk
library/tkinter 24.1.4. Mapping Basic Tk into Tkinter
library/tkinter 24.1.5. How Tk and Tkinter are Related
library/tkinter 24.1.6. Handy Reference
library/tkinter Setting Options
library/tkinter The Packer
library/tkinter Packer Options
library/tkinter Coupling Widget Variables
library/tkinter The Window Manager
library/tkinter Tk Option Data Types
library/tkinter Bindings and Events
library/tkinter The index Parameter
library/tkinter Images
library/ttk 24.2. ttk — Tk themed widgets
library/ttk 24.2.1. Using Ttk
library/ttk 24.2.2. Ttk Widgets
library/ttk 24.2.3. Widget
library/ttk Standard Options
library/ttk Scrollable Widget Options
library/ttk Label Options
library/ttk Compatibility Options
library/ttk Widget States
library/ttk ttk.Widget
library/ttk 24.2.4. Combobox
library/ttk Options
library/ttk Virtual events
library/ttk ttk.Combobox
library/ttk 24.2.5. Notebook
library/ttk Options
library/ttk Tab Options
library/ttk Tab Identifiers
library/ttk Virtual Events
library/ttk ttk.Notebook
library/ttk 24.2.6. Progressbar
library/ttk Options
library/ttk ttk.Progressbar
library/ttk 24.2.7. Separator
library/ttk Options
library/ttk 24.2.8. Sizegrip
library/ttk Platform-specific notes
library/ttk Bugs
library/ttk 24.2.9. Treeview
library/ttk Options
library/ttk Item Options
library/ttk Tag Options
library/ttk Column Identifiers
library/ttk Virtual Events
library/ttk ttk.Treeview
library/ttk 24.2.10. Ttk Styling
library/ttk Layouts
library/tix 24.3. Tix — Extension widgets for Tk
library/tix 24.3.1. Using Tix
library/tix 24.3.2. Tix Widgets
library/tix Basic Widgets
library/tix File Selectors
library/tix Hierarchical ListBox
library/tix Tabular ListBox
library/tix Manager Widgets
library/tix Image Types
library/tix Miscellaneous Widgets
library/tix Form Geometry Manager
library/tix 24.3.3. Tix Commands
library/scrolledtext 24.4. ScrolledText — Scrolled Text Widget
library/turtle 24.5. turtle — Turtle graphics for Tk
library/turtle 24.5.1. Introduction
library/turtle 24.5.2. Overview over available Turtle and Screen methods
library/turtle Turtle methods
library/turtle Methods of TurtleScreen/Screen
library/turtle 24.5.3. Methods of RawTurtle/Turtle and corresponding functions
library/turtle Turtle motion
library/turtle Tell Turtle’s state
library/turtle Settings for measurement
library/turtle Pen control
library/turtle Drawing state
library/turtle Color control
library/turtle Filling
library/turtle More drawing control
library/turtle Turtle state
library/turtle Visibility
library/turtle Appearance
library/turtle Using events
library/turtle Special Turtle methods
library/turtle Excursus about the use of compound shapes
library/turtle 24.5.4. Methods of TurtleScreen/Screen and corresponding functions
library/turtle Window control
library/turtle Animation control
library/turtle Using screen events
library/turtle Settings and special methods
library/turtle Methods specific to Screen, not inherited from TurtleScreen
library/turtle 24.5.5. The public classes of the module turtle
library/turtle 24.5.6. Help and configuration
library/turtle How to use help
library/turtle Translation of docstrings into different languages
library/turtle How to configure Screen and Turtles
library/turtle 24.5.7. Demo scripts
library/idle 24.6. IDLE
library/idle 24.6.1. Menus
library/idle File menu
library/idle Edit menu
library/idle Windows menu
library/idle Debug menu
library/idle Edit context menu
library/idle Shell context menu
library/idle 24.6.2. Basic editing and navigation
library/idle Automatic indentation
library/idle Python Shell window
library/idle 24.6.3. Syntax colors
library/idle 24.6.4. Startup
library/idle Command line usage
library/othergui 24.7. Other Graphical User Interface Packages
library/development 25. Development Tools
library/pydoc 25.1. pydoc — Documentation generator and online help system
library/doctest 25.2. doctest — Test interactive Python examples
library/doctest 25.2.1. Simple Usage: Checking Examples in Docstrings
library/doctest 25.2.2. Simple Usage: Checking Examples in a Text File
library/doctest 25.2.3. How It Works
library/doctest Which Docstrings Are Examined?
library/doctest How are Docstring Examples Recognized?
library/doctest What’s the Execution Context?
library/doctest What About Exceptions?
library/doctest Option Flags
library/doctest Directives
library/doctest Warnings
library/doctest 25.2.4. Basic API
library/doctest 25.2.5. Unittest API
library/doctest 25.2.6. Advanced API
library/doctest DocTest Objects
library/doctest Example Objects
library/doctest DocTestFinder objects
library/doctest DocTestParser objects
library/doctest DocTestRunner objects
library/doctest OutputChecker objects
library/doctest 25.2.7. Debugging
library/doctest 25.2.8. Soapbox
library/unittest 25.3. unittest — Unit testing framework
library/unittest 25.3.1. Basic example
library/unittest 25.3.2. Command-Line Interface
library/unittest Command-line options
library/unittest 25.3.3. Test Discovery
library/unittest 25.3.4. Organizing test code
library/unittest 25.3.5. Re-using old test code
library/unittest 25.3.6. Skipping tests and expected failures
library/unittest 25.3.7. Classes and functions
library/unittest Test cases
library/unittest Deprecated aliases
library/unittest Grouping tests
library/unittest Loading and running tests
library/unittest load_tests Protocol
library/unittest 25.3.8. Class and Module Fixtures
library/unittest setUpClass and tearDownClass
library/unittest setUpModule and tearDownModule
library/unittest 25.3.9. Signal Handling
library/2to3 25.4. 2to3 - Automated Python 2 to 3 code translation
library/2to3 25.4.1. Using 2to3
library/2to3 25.4.2. Fixers
library/2to3 25.4.3. lib2to3 - 2to3’s library
library/test 25.5. test — Regression tests package for Python
library/test 25.5.1. Writing Unit Tests for the test package
library/test 25.5.2. Running tests using the command-line interface
library/test 25.6. test.test_support — Utility functions for tests
library/debug 26. Debugging and Profiling
library/bdb 26.1. bdb — Debugger framework
library/pdb 26.2. pdb — The Python Debugger
library/pdb 26.3. Debugger Commands
library/profile 26.4. The Python Profilers
library/profile 26.4.1. Introduction to the profilers
library/profile 26.4.2. Instant User’s Manual
library/profile 26.4.3. profile and cProfile Module Reference
library/profile 26.4.4. The Stats Class
library/profile 26.4.5. What Is Deterministic Profiling?
library/profile 26.4.6. Limitations
library/profile 26.4.7. Calibration
library/profile 26.4.8. Using a custom timer
library/hotshot 26.5. hotshot — High performance logging profiler
library/hotshot 26.5.1. Profile Objects
library/hotshot 26.5.2. Using hotshot data
library/hotshot 26.5.3. Example Usage
library/timeit 26.6. timeit — Measure execution time of small code snippets
library/timeit 26.6.1. Basic Examples
library/timeit 26.6.2. Python Interface
library/timeit 26.6.3. Command-Line Interface
library/timeit 26.6.4. Examples
library/trace 26.7. trace — Trace or track Python statement execution
library/trace 26.7.1. Command-Line Usage
library/trace Main options
library/trace Modifiers
library/trace Filters
library/trace 26.7.2. Programmatic Interface
library/python 27. Python Runtime Services
library/sys 27.1. sys — System-specific parameters and functions
library/sysconfig 27.2. sysconfig — Provide access to Python’s configuration information
library/sysconfig 27.2.1. Configuration variables
library/sysconfig 27.2.2. Installation paths
library/sysconfig 27.2.3. Other functions
library/__builtin__ 27.3. __builtin__ — Built-in objects
library/future_builtins 27.4. future_builtins — Python 3 builtins
library/__main__ 27.5. __main__ — Top-level script environment
library/warnings 27.6. warnings — Warning control
library/warnings 27.6.1. Warning Categories
library/warnings 27.6.2. The Warnings Filter
library/warnings Default Warning Filters
library/warnings 27.6.3. Temporarily Suppressing Warnings
library/warnings 27.6.4. Testing Warnings
library/warnings 27.6.5. Updating Code For New Versions of Python
library/warnings 27.6.6. Available Functions
library/warnings 27.6.7. Available Context Managers
library/contextlib 27.7. contextlib — Utilities for with-statement contexts
library/abc 27.8. abc — Abstract Base Classes
library/atexit 27.9. atexit — Exit handlers
library/atexit 27.9.1. atexit Example
library/traceback 27.10. traceback — Print or retrieve a stack traceback
library/traceback 27.10.1. Traceback Examples
library/__future__ 27.11. __future__ — Future statement definitions
library/gc 27.12. gc — Garbage Collector interface
library/inspect 27.13. inspect — Inspect live objects
library/inspect 27.13.1. Types and members
library/inspect 27.13.2. Retrieving source code
library/inspect 27.13.3. Classes and functions
library/inspect 27.13.4. The interpreter stack
library/site 27.14. site — Site-specific configuration hook
library/user 27.15. user — User-specific configuration hook
library/fpectl 27.16. fpectl — Floating point exception control
library/fpectl 27.16.1. Example
library/fpectl 27.16.2. Limitations and other considerations
library/distutils 27.17. distutils — Building and installing Python modules
library/custominterp 28. Custom Python Interpreters
library/code 28.1. code — Interpreter base classes
library/code 28.1.1. Interactive Interpreter Objects
library/code 28.1.2. Interactive Console Objects
library/codeop 28.2. codeop — Compile Python code
library/restricted 29. Restricted Execution
library/rexec 29.1. rexec — Restricted execution framework
library/rexec 29.1.1. RExec Objects
library/rexec 29.1.2. Defining restricted environments
library/rexec 29.1.3. An example
library/bastion 29.2. Bastion — Restricting access to objects
library/modules 30. Importing Modules
library/imp 30.1. imp — Access the import internals
library/imp 30.1.1. Examples
library/importlib 30.2. importlib – Convenience wrappers for __import__()
library/imputil 30.3. imputil — Import utilities
library/imputil 30.3.1. Examples
library/zipimport 30.4. zipimport — Import modules from Zip archives
library/zipimport 30.4.1. zipimporter Objects
library/zipimport 30.4.2. Examples
library/pkgutil 30.5. pkgutil — Package extension utility
library/modulefinder 30.6. modulefinder — Find modules used by a script
library/modulefinder 30.6.1. Example usage of ModuleFinder
library/runpy 30.7. runpy — Locating and executing Python modules
library/language 31. Python Language Services
library/parser 31.1. parser — Access Python parse trees
library/parser 31.1.1. Creating ST Objects
library/parser 31.1.2. Converting ST Objects
library/parser 31.1.3. Queries on ST Objects
library/parser 31.1.4. Exceptions and Error Handling
library/parser 31.1.5. ST Objects
library/parser 31.1.6. Example: Emulation of compile()
library/ast 31.2. ast — Abstract Syntax Trees
library/ast 31.2.1. Node classes
library/ast 31.2.2. Abstract Grammar
library/ast 31.2.3. ast Helpers
library/symtable 31.3. symtable — Access to the compiler’s symbol tables
library/symtable 31.3.1. Generating Symbol Tables
library/symtable 31.3.2. Examining Symbol Tables
library/symbol 31.4. symbol — Constants used with Python parse trees
library/token 31.5. token — Constants used with Python parse trees
library/keyword 31.6. keyword — Testing for Python keywords
library/tokenize 31.7. tokenize — Tokenizer for Python source
library/tabnanny 31.8. tabnanny — Detection of ambiguous indentation
library/pyclbr 31.9. pyclbr — Python class browser support
library/pyclbr 31.9.1. Class Objects
library/pyclbr 31.9.2. Function Objects
library/py_compile 31.10. py_compile — Compile Python source files
library/compileall 31.11. compileall — Byte-compile Python libraries
library/compileall 31.11.1. Command-line use
library/compileall 31.11.2. Public functions
library/dis 31.12. dis — Disassembler for Python bytecode
library/dis 31.12.1. Python Bytecode Instructions
library/pickletools 31.13. pickletools — Tools for pickle developers
library/compiler 32. Python compiler package
library/compiler 32.1. The basic interface
library/compiler 32.2. Limitations
library/compiler 32.3. Python Abstract Syntax
library/compiler 32.3.1. AST Nodes
library/compiler 32.3.2. Assignment nodes
library/compiler 32.3.3. Examples
library/compiler 32.4. Using Visitors to Walk ASTs
library/compiler 32.5. Bytecode Generation
library/misc 33. Miscellaneous Services
library/formatter 33.1. formatter — Generic output formatting
library/formatter 33.1.1. The Formatter Interface
library/formatter 33.1.2. Formatter Implementations
library/formatter 33.1.3. The Writer Interface
library/formatter 33.1.4. Writer Implementations
library/windows 34. MS Windows Specific Services
library/msilib 34.1. msilib — Read and write Microsoft Installer files
library/msilib 34.1.1. Database Objects
library/msilib 34.1.2. View Objects
library/msilib 34.1.3. Summary Information Objects
library/msilib 34.1.4. Record Objects
library/msilib 34.1.5. Errors
library/msilib 34.1.6. CAB Objects
library/msilib 34.1.7. Directory Objects
library/msilib 34.1.8. Features
library/msilib 34.1.9. GUI classes
library/msilib 34.1.10. Precomputed tables
library/msvcrt 34.2. msvcrt – Useful routines from the MS VC++ runtime
library/msvcrt 34.2.1. File Operations
library/msvcrt 34.2.2. Console I/O
library/msvcrt 34.2.3. Other Functions
library/_winreg 34.3. _winreg – Windows registry access
library/_winreg 34.3.1. Constants
library/_winreg HKEY_* Constants
library/_winreg Access Rights
library/_winreg 64-bit Specific
library/_winreg Value Types
library/_winreg 34.3.2. Registry Handle Objects
library/winsound 34.4. winsound — Sound-playing interface for Windows
library/unix 35. Unix Specific Services
library/posix 35.1. posix — The most common POSIX system calls
library/posix 35.1.1. Large File Support
library/posix 35.1.2. Notable Module Contents
library/pwd 35.2. pwd — The password database
library/spwd 35.3. spwd — The shadow password database
library/grp 35.4. grp — The group database
library/crypt 35.5. crypt — Function to check Unix passwords
library/dl 35.6. dl — Call C functions in shared objects
library/dl 35.6.1. Dl Objects
library/termios 35.7. termios — POSIX style tty control
library/termios 35.7.1. Example
library/tty 35.8. tty — Terminal control functions
library/pty 35.9. pty — Pseudo-terminal utilities
library/fcntl 35.10. fcntl — The fcntl and ioctl system calls
library/pipes 35.11. pipes — Interface to shell pipelines
library/pipes 35.11.1. Template Objects
library/posixfile 35.12. posixfile — File-like objects with locking support
library/resource 35.13. resource — Resource usage information
library/resource 35.13.1. Resource Limits
library/resource 35.13.2. Resource Usage
library/nis 35.14. nis — Interface to Sun’s NIS (Yellow Pages)
library/syslog 35.15. syslog — Unix syslog library routines
library/syslog 35.15.1. Examples
library/syslog Simple example
library/commands 35.16. commands — Utilities for running commands
library/mac 36. Mac OS X specific services
library/ic 36.1. ic — Access to the Mac OS X Internet Config
library/ic 36.1.1. IC Objects
library/macos 36.2. MacOS — Access to Mac OS interpreter features
library/macostools 36.3. macostools — Convenience routines for file manipulation
library/macostools 36.4. findertools — The finder‘s Apple Events interface
library/easydialogs 36.5. EasyDialogs — Basic Macintosh dialogs
library/easydialogs 36.5.1. ProgressBar Objects
library/framework 36.6. FrameWork — Interactive application framework
library/framework 36.6.1. Application Objects
library/framework 36.6.2. Window Objects
library/framework 36.6.3. ControlsWindow Object
library/framework 36.6.4. ScrolledWindow Object
library/framework 36.6.5. DialogWindow Objects
library/autogil 36.7. autoGIL — Global Interpreter Lock handling in event loops
library/carbon 36.8. Mac OS Toolbox Modules
library/carbon 36.8.1. Carbon.AE — Apple Events
library/carbon 36.8.2. Carbon.AH — Apple Help
library/carbon 36.8.3. Carbon.App — Appearance Manager
library/carbon 36.8.4. Carbon.Appearance — Appearance Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.5. Carbon.CF — Core Foundation
library/carbon 36.8.6. Carbon.CG — Core Graphics
library/carbon 36.8.7. Carbon.CarbonEvt — Carbon Event Manager
library/carbon 36.8.8. Carbon.CarbonEvents — Carbon Event Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.9. Carbon.Cm — Component Manager
library/carbon 36.8.10. Carbon.Components — Component Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.11. Carbon.ControlAccessor — Control Manager accssors
library/carbon 36.8.12. Carbon.Controls — Control Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.13. Carbon.CoreFounation — CoreFounation constants
library/carbon 36.8.14. Carbon.CoreGraphics — CoreGraphics constants
library/carbon 36.8.15. Carbon.Ctl — Control Manager
library/carbon 36.8.16. Carbon.Dialogs — Dialog Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.17. Carbon.Dlg — Dialog Manager
library/carbon 36.8.18. Carbon.Drag — Drag and Drop Manager
library/carbon 36.8.19. Carbon.Dragconst — Drag and Drop Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.20. Carbon.Events — Event Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.21. Carbon.Evt — Event Manager
library/carbon 36.8.22. Carbon.File — File Manager
library/carbon 36.8.23. Carbon.Files — File Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.24. Carbon.Fm — Font Manager
library/carbon 36.8.25. Carbon.Folder — Folder Manager
library/carbon 36.8.26. Carbon.Folders — Folder Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.27. Carbon.Fonts — Font Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.28. Carbon.Help — Help Manager
library/carbon 36.8.29. Carbon.IBCarbon — Carbon InterfaceBuilder
library/carbon 36.8.30. Carbon.IBCarbonRuntime — Carbon InterfaceBuilder constants
library/carbon 36.8.31. Carbon.Icn — Carbon Icon Manager
library/carbon 36.8.32. Carbon.Icons — Carbon Icon Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.33. Carbon.Launch — Carbon Launch Services
library/carbon 36.8.34. Carbon.LaunchServices — Carbon Launch Services constants
library/carbon 36.8.35. Carbon.List — List Manager
library/carbon 36.8.36. Carbon.Lists — List Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.37. Carbon.MacHelp — Help Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.38. Carbon.MediaDescr — Parsers and generators for Quicktime Media descriptors
library/carbon 36.8.39. Carbon.Menu — Menu Manager
library/carbon 36.8.40. Carbon.Menus — Menu Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.41. Carbon.Mlte — MultiLingual Text Editor
library/carbon 36.8.42. Carbon.OSA — Carbon OSA Interface
library/carbon 36.8.43. Carbon.OSAconst — Carbon OSA Interface constants
library/carbon 36.8.44. Carbon.QDOffscreen — QuickDraw Offscreen constants
library/carbon 36.8.45. Carbon.Qd — QuickDraw
library/carbon 36.8.46. Carbon.Qdoffs — QuickDraw Offscreen
library/carbon 36.8.47. Carbon.Qt — QuickTime
library/carbon 36.8.48. Carbon.QuickDraw — QuickDraw constants
library/carbon 36.8.49. Carbon.QuickTime — QuickTime constants
library/carbon 36.8.50. Carbon.Res — Resource Manager and Handles
library/carbon 36.8.51. Carbon.Resources — Resource Manager and Handles constants
library/carbon 36.8.52. Carbon.Scrap — Scrap Manager
library/carbon 36.8.53. Carbon.Snd — Sound Manager
library/carbon 36.8.54. Carbon.Sound — Sound Manager constants
library/carbon 36.8.55. Carbon.TE — TextEdit
library/carbon 36.8.56. Carbon.TextEdit — TextEdit constants
library/carbon 36.8.57. Carbon.Win — Window Manager
library/carbon 36.8.58. Carbon.Windows — Window Manager constants
library/colorpicker 36.9. ColorPicker — Color selection dialog
library/macosa 37. MacPython OSA Modules
library/gensuitemodule 37.1. gensuitemodule — Generate OSA stub packages
library/aetools 37.2. aetools — OSA client support
library/aepack 37.3. aepack — Conversion between Python variables and AppleEvent data containers
library/aetypes 37.4. aetypes — AppleEvent objects
library/miniaeframe 37.5. MiniAEFrame — Open Scripting Architecture server support
library/miniaeframe 37.5.1. AEServer Objects
library/sgi 38. SGI IRIX Specific Services
library/al 38.1. al — Audio functions on the SGI
library/al 38.1.1. Configuration Objects
library/al 38.1.2. Port Objects
library/al 38.2. AL — Constants used with the al module
library/cd 38.3. cd — CD-ROM access on SGI systems
library/cd 38.3.1. Player Objects
library/cd 38.3.2. Parser Objects
library/fl 38.4. fl — FORMS library for graphical user interfaces
library/fl 38.4.1. Functions Defined in Module fl
library/fl 38.4.2. Form Objects
library/fl 38.4.3. FORMS Objects
library/fl 38.5. FL — Constants used with the fl module
library/fl 38.6. flp — Functions for loading stored FORMS designs
library/fm 38.7. fm — Font Manager interface
library/gl 38.8. gl — Graphics Library interface
library/gl 38.9. DEVICE — Constants used with the gl module
library/gl 38.10. GL — Constants used with the gl module
library/imgfile 38.11. imgfile — Support for SGI imglib files
library/jpeg 38.12. jpeg — Read and write JPEG files
library/sun 39. SunOS Specific Services
library/sunaudio 39.1. sunaudiodev — Access to Sun audio hardware
library/sunaudio 39.1.1. Audio Device Objects
library/sunaudio 39.2. SUNAUDIODEV — Constants used with sunaudiodev
library/undoc 40. Undocumented Modules
library/undoc 40.1. Miscellaneous useful utilities
library/undoc 40.2. Platform specific modules
library/undoc 40.3. Multimedia
library/undoc 40.4. Undocumented Mac OS modules
library/undoc 40.4.1. applesingle — AppleSingle decoder
library/undoc 40.4.2. buildtools — Helper module for BuildApplet and Friends
library/undoc 40.4.3. cfmfile — Code Fragment Resource module
library/undoc 40.4.4. icopen — Internet Config replacement for open()
library/undoc 40.4.5. macerrors — Mac OS Errors
library/undoc 40.4.6. macresource — Locate script resources
library/undoc 40.4.7. Nav — NavServices calls
library/undoc 40.4.8. PixMapWrapper — Wrapper for PixMap objects
library/undoc 40.4.9. videoreader — Read QuickTime movies
library/undoc 40.4.10. W — Widgets built on FrameWork
library/undoc 40.5. Obsolete
library/undoc 40.6. SGI-specific Extension modules
extending/index Extending and Embedding the Python Interpreter
extending/extending 1. Extending Python with C or C++
extending/extending 1.1. A Simple Example
extending/extending 1.2. Intermezzo: Errors and Exceptions
extending/extending 1.3. Back to the Example
extending/extending 1.4. The Module’s Method Table and Initialization Function
extending/extending 1.5. Compilation and Linkage
extending/extending 1.6. Calling Python Functions from C
extending/extending 1.7. Extracting Parameters in Extension Functions
extending/extending 1.8. Keyword Parameters for Extension Functions
extending/extending 1.9. Building Arbitrary Values
extending/extending 1.10. Reference Counts
extending/extending 1.10.1. Reference Counting in Python
extending/extending 1.10.2. Ownership Rules
extending/extending 1.10.3. Thin Ice
extending/extending 1.10.4. NULL Pointers
extending/extending 1.11. Writing Extensions in C++
extending/extending 1.12. Providing a C API for an Extension Module
extending/newtypes 2. Defining New Types
extending/newtypes 2.1. The Basics
extending/newtypes 2.1.1. Adding data and methods to the Basic example
extending/newtypes 2.1.2. Providing finer control over data attributes
extending/newtypes 2.1.3. Supporting cyclic garbage collection
extending/newtypes 2.1.4. Subclassing other types
extending/newtypes 2.2. Type Methods
extending/newtypes 2.2.1. Finalization and De-allocation
extending/newtypes 2.2.2. Object Presentation
extending/newtypes 2.2.3. Attribute Management
extending/newtypes Generic Attribute Management
extending/newtypes Type-specific Attribute Management
extending/newtypes 2.2.4. Object Comparison
extending/newtypes 2.2.5. Abstract Protocol Support
extending/newtypes 2.2.6. Weak Reference Support
extending/newtypes 2.2.7. More Suggestions
extending/building 3. Building C and C++ Extensions with distutils
extending/building 3.1. Distributing your extension modules
extending/windows 4. Building C and C++ Extensions on Windows
extending/windows 4.1. A Cookbook Approach
extending/windows 4.2. Differences Between Unix and Windows
extending/windows 4.3. Using DLLs in Practice
extending/embedding 5. Embedding Python in Another Application
extending/embedding 5.1. Very High Level Embedding
extending/embedding 5.2. Beyond Very High Level Embedding: An overview
extending/embedding 5.3. Pure Embedding
extending/embedding 5.4. Extending Embedded Python
extending/embedding 5.5. Embedding Python in C++
extending/embedding 5.6. Compiling and Linking under Unix-like systems
c-api/index Python/C API Reference Manual
c-api/intro Introduction
c-api/intro Include Files
c-api/intro Objects, Types and Reference Counts
c-api/intro Reference Counts
c-api/intro Reference Count Details
c-api/intro Types
c-api/intro Exceptions
c-api/intro Embedding Python
c-api/intro Debugging Builds
c-api/veryhigh The Very High Level Layer
c-api/refcounting Reference Counting
c-api/exceptions Exception Handling
c-api/exceptions Unicode Exception Objects
c-api/exceptions Recursion Control
c-api/exceptions Standard Exceptions
c-api/exceptions String Exceptions
c-api/utilities Utilities
c-api/sys Operating System Utilities
c-api/sys System Functions
c-api/sys Process Control
c-api/import Importing Modules
c-api/marshal Data marshalling support
c-api/arg Parsing arguments and building values
c-api/conversion String conversion and formatting
c-api/reflection Reflection
c-api/codec Codec registry and support functions
c-api/codec Codec lookup API
c-api/codec Registry API for Unicode encoding error handlers
c-api/abstract Abstract Objects Layer
c-api/object Object Protocol
c-api/number Number Protocol
c-api/sequence Sequence Protocol
c-api/mapping Mapping Protocol
c-api/iter Iterator Protocol
c-api/objbuffer Old Buffer Protocol
c-api/concrete Concrete Objects Layer
c-api/concrete Fundamental Objects
c-api/type Type Objects
c-api/none The None Object
c-api/concrete Numeric Objects
c-api/int Plain Integer Objects
c-api/bool Boolean Objects
c-api/long Long Integer Objects
c-api/float Floating Point Objects
c-api/complex Complex Number Objects
c-api/complex Complex Numbers as C Structures
c-api/complex Complex Numbers as Python Objects
c-api/concrete Sequence Objects
c-api/bytearray Byte Array Objects
c-api/bytearray Type check macros
c-api/bytearray Direct API functions
c-api/bytearray Macros
c-api/string String/Bytes Objects
c-api/unicode Unicode Objects and Codecs
c-api/unicode Unicode Objects
c-api/unicode Unicode Type
c-api/unicode Unicode Character Properties
c-api/unicode Plain Py_UNICODE
c-api/unicode wchar_t Support
c-api/unicode Built-in Codecs
c-api/unicode Generic Codecs
c-api/unicode UTF-8 Codecs
c-api/unicode UTF-32 Codecs
c-api/unicode UTF-16 Codecs
c-api/unicode UTF-7 Codecs
c-api/unicode Unicode-Escape Codecs
c-api/unicode Raw-Unicode-Escape Codecs
c-api/unicode Latin-1 Codecs
c-api/unicode ASCII Codecs
c-api/unicode Character Map Codecs
c-api/unicode MBCS codecs for Windows
c-api/unicode Methods Slots
c-api/unicode Methods and Slot Functions
c-api/buffer Buffers and Memoryview Objects
c-api/buffer The new-style Py_buffer struct
c-api/buffer Buffer related functions
c-api/buffer MemoryView objects
c-api/buffer Old-style buffer objects
c-api/tuple Tuple Objects
c-api/list List Objects
c-api/concrete Mapping Objects
c-api/dict Dictionary Objects
c-api/concrete Other Objects
c-api/class Class and Instance Objects
c-api/function Function Objects
c-api/method Method Objects
c-api/file File Objects
c-api/module Module Objects
c-api/iterator Iterator Objects
c-api/descriptor Descriptor Objects
c-api/slice Slice Objects
c-api/weakref Weak Reference Objects
c-api/capsule Capsules
c-api/cobject CObjects
c-api/cell Cell Objects
c-api/gen Generator Objects
c-api/datetime DateTime Objects
c-api/set Set Objects
c-api/code Code Objects
c-api/init Initialization, Finalization, and Threads
c-api/init Initializing and finalizing the interpreter
c-api/init Process-wide parameters
c-api/init Thread State and the Global Interpreter Lock
c-api/init Releasing the GIL from extension code
c-api/init Non-Python created threads
c-api/init High-level API
c-api/init Low-level API
c-api/init Sub-interpreter support
c-api/init Bugs and caveats
c-api/init Asynchronous Notifications
c-api/init Profiling and Tracing
c-api/init Advanced Debugger Support
c-api/memory Memory Management
c-api/memory Overview
c-api/memory Memory Interface
c-api/memory Examples
c-api/objimpl Object Implementation Support
c-api/allocation Allocating Objects on the Heap
c-api/structures Common Object Structures
c-api/typeobj Type Objects
c-api/typeobj Number Object Structures
c-api/typeobj Mapping Object Structures
c-api/typeobj Sequence Object Structures
c-api/typeobj Buffer Object Structures
c-api/gcsupport Supporting Cyclic Garbage Collection
distutils/index Distributing Python Modules
distutils/introduction 1. An Introduction to Distutils
distutils/introduction 1.1. Concepts Terminology
distutils/introduction 1.2. A Simple Example
distutils/introduction 1.3. General Python terminology
distutils/introduction 1.4. Distutils-specific terminology
distutils/setupscript 2. Writing the Setup Script
distutils/setupscript 2.1. Listing whole packages
distutils/setupscript 2.2. Listing individual modules
distutils/setupscript 2.3. Describing extension modules
distutils/setupscript 2.3.1. Extension names and packages
distutils/setupscript 2.3.2. Extension source files
distutils/setupscript 2.3.3. Preprocessor options
distutils/setupscript 2.3.4. Library options
distutils/setupscript 2.3.5. Other options
distutils/setupscript 2.4. Relationships between Distributions and Packages
distutils/setupscript 2.5. Installing Scripts
distutils/setupscript 2.6. Installing Package Data
distutils/setupscript 2.7. Installing Additional Files
distutils/setupscript 2.8. Additional meta-data
distutils/setupscript 2.9. Debugging the setup script
distutils/configfile 3. Writing the Setup Configuration File
distutils/sourcedist 4. Creating a Source Distribution
distutils/sourcedist 4.1. Specifying the files to distribute
distutils/sourcedist 4.2. Manifest-related options
distutils/sourcedist 4.3. The template
distutils/sourcedist 4.3.1. Principle
distutils/sourcedist 4.3.2. Commands
distutils/builtdist 5. Creating Built Distributions
distutils/builtdist 5.1. Creating dumb built distributions
distutils/builtdist 5.2. Creating RPM packages
distutils/builtdist 5.3. Creating Windows Installers
distutils/builtdist 5.4. Cross-compiling on Windows
distutils/builtdist 5.4.1. The Postinstallation script
distutils/builtdist 5.5. Vista User Access Control (UAC)
distutils/packageindex 6. The Python Package Index (PyPI)
distutils/packageindex 6.1. PyPI overview
distutils/packageindex 6.2. Distutils commands
distutils/packageindex 6.2.1. The register command
distutils/packageindex 6.2.2. The upload command
distutils/packageindex 6.2.3. Additional command options
distutils/packageindex 6.2.4. The .pypirc file
distutils/packageindex 6.3. PyPI package display
distutils/examples 7. Examples
distutils/examples 7.1. Pure Python distribution (by module)
distutils/examples 7.2. Pure Python distribution (by package)
distutils/examples 7.3. Single extension module
distutils/extending 8. Extending Distutils
distutils/extending 8.1. Integrating new commands
distutils/extending 8.2. Adding new distribution types
distutils/commandref 9. Command Reference
distutils/commandref 9.1. Installing modules: the install command family
distutils/commandref 9.1.1. install_data
distutils/commandref 9.1.2. install_scripts
distutils/apiref 10. API Reference
distutils/apiref 10.1. distutils.core — Core Distutils functionality
distutils/apiref 10.2. distutils.ccompiler — CCompiler base class
distutils/apiref 10.3. distutils.unixccompiler — Unix C Compiler
distutils/apiref 10.4. distutils.msvccompiler — Microsoft Compiler
distutils/apiref 10.5. distutils.bcppcompiler — Borland Compiler
distutils/apiref 10.6. distutils.cygwincompiler — Cygwin Compiler
distutils/apiref 10.7. distutils.emxccompiler — OS/2 EMX Compiler
distutils/apiref 10.8. distutils.archive_util — Archiving utilities
distutils/apiref 10.9. distutils.dep_util — Dependency checking
distutils/apiref 10.10. distutils.dir_util — Directory tree operations
distutils/apiref 10.11. distutils.file_util — Single file operations
distutils/apiref 10.12. distutils.util — Miscellaneous other utility functions
distutils/apiref 10.13. distutils.dist — The Distribution class
distutils/apiref 10.14. distutils.extension — The Extension class
distutils/apiref 10.15. distutils.debug — Distutils debug mode
distutils/apiref 10.16. distutils.errors — Distutils exceptions
distutils/apiref 10.17. distutils.fancy_getopt — Wrapper around the standard getopt module
distutils/apiref 10.18. distutils.filelist — The FileList class
distutils/apiref 10.19. distutils.log — Simple PEP 282-style logging
distutils/apiref 10.20. distutils.spawn — Spawn a sub-process
distutils/apiref 10.21. distutils.sysconfig — System configuration information
distutils/apiref 10.22. distutils.text_file — The TextFile class
distutils/apiref 10.23. distutils.version — Version number classes
distutils/apiref 10.24. distutils.cmd — Abstract base class for Distutils commands
distutils/apiref 10.25. Creating a new Distutils command
distutils/apiref 10.26. distutils.command — Individual Distutils commands
distutils/apiref 10.27. distutils.command.bdist — Build a binary installer
distutils/apiref 10.28. distutils.command.bdist_packager — Abstract base class for packagers
distutils/apiref 10.29. distutils.command.bdist_dumb — Build a “dumb” installer
distutils/apiref 10.30. distutils.command.bdist_msi — Build a Microsoft Installer binary package
distutils/apiref 10.31. distutils.command.bdist_rpm — Build a binary distribution as a Redhat RPM and SRPM
distutils/apiref 10.32. distutils.command.bdist_wininst — Build a Windows installer
distutils/apiref 10.33. distutils.command.sdist — Build a source distribution
distutils/apiref 10.34. — Build all files of a package
distutils/apiref 10.35. distutils.command.build_clib — Build any C libraries in a package
distutils/apiref 10.36. distutils.command.build_ext — Build any extensions in a package
distutils/apiref 10.37. distutils.command.build_py — Build the .py/.pyc files of a package
distutils/apiref 10.38. distutils.command.build_scripts — Build the scripts of a package
distutils/apiref 10.39. distutils.command.clean — Clean a package build area
distutils/apiref 10.40. distutils.command.config — Perform package configuration
distutils/apiref 10.41. distutils.command.install — Install a package
distutils/apiref 10.42. distutils.command.install_data — Install data files from a package
distutils/apiref 10.43. distutils.command.install_headers — Install C/C++ header files from a package
distutils/apiref 10.44. distutils.command.install_lib — Install library files from a package
distutils/apiref 10.45. distutils.command.install_scripts — Install script files from a package
distutils/apiref 10.46. distutils.command.register — Register a module with the Python Package Index
distutils/apiref 10.47. distutils.command.check — Check the meta-data of a package
install/index Installing Python Modules
install/index Introduction
install/index Best case: trivial installation
install/index The new standard: Distutils
install/index Standard Build and Install
install/index Platform variations
install/index Splitting the job up
install/index How building works
install/index How installation works
install/index Alternate Installation
install/index Alternate installation: the user scheme
install/index Alternate installation: the home scheme
install/index Alternate installation: Unix (the prefix scheme)
install/index Alternate installation: Windows (the prefix scheme)
install/index Custom Installation
install/index Modifying Python’s Search Path
install/index Distutils Configuration Files
install/index Location and names of config files
install/index Syntax of config files
install/index Building Extensions: Tips and Tricks
install/index Tweaking compiler/linker flags
install/index Using non-Microsoft compilers on Windows
install/index Borland/CodeGear C++
install/index GNU C / Cygwin / MinGW
install/index Older Versions of Python and MinGW
howto/index Python HOWTOs
howto/pyporting Porting Python 2 Code to Python 3
howto/pyporting The Short Version
howto/pyporting Before You Begin
howto/pyporting Writing Source-Compatible Python 2/3 Code
howto/pyporting Projects to Consider
howto/pyporting Tips Tricks
howto/pyporting Support Python 2.7
howto/pyporting Try to Support Python 2.6 and Newer Only
howto/pyporting from __future__ import print_function
howto/pyporting from __future__ import unicode_literals
howto/pyporting Bytes/string literals
howto/pyporting from __future__ import absolute_import
howto/pyporting Supporting Python 2.5 and Newer Only
howto/pyporting from __future__ import absolute_import
howto/pyporting Mark all Unicode strings with a u prefix
howto/pyporting Capturing the Currently Raised Exception
howto/pyporting Handle Common “Gotchas”
howto/pyporting from __future__ import division
howto/pyporting Specify when opening a file as binary
howto/pyporting Text files
howto/pyporting Subclass object
howto/pyporting Deal With the Bytes/String Dichotomy
howto/pyporting Mark Up Python 2 String Literals
howto/pyporting Decide what APIs Will Accept
howto/pyporting Bytes / Unicode Comparison
howto/pyporting Indexing bytes objects
howto/pyporting __str__()/__unicode__()
howto/pyporting Don’t Index on Exceptions
howto/pyporting Don’t use __getslice__ Friends
howto/pyporting Updating doctests
howto/pyporting Update map for imbalanced input sequences
howto/pyporting Eliminate -3 Warnings
howto/pyporting Alternative Approaches
howto/pyporting Supporting Only Python 3 Going Forward From Python 2 Code
howto/pyporting Backporting Python 3 code to Python 2
howto/pyporting Other Resources
howto/cporting Porting Extension Modules to Python 3
howto/cporting Conditional compilation
howto/cporting Changes to Object APIs
howto/cporting str/unicode Unification
howto/cporting long/int Unification
howto/cporting Module initialization and state
howto/cporting CObject replaced with Capsule
howto/cporting Other options
howto/curses Curses Programming with Python
howto/curses What is curses?
howto/curses The Python curses module
howto/curses Starting and ending a curses application
howto/curses Windows and Pads
howto/curses Displaying Text
howto/curses Attributes and Color
howto/curses User Input
howto/curses For More Information
howto/descriptor Descriptor HowTo Guide
howto/descriptor Abstract
howto/descriptor Definition and Introduction
howto/descriptor Descriptor Protocol
howto/descriptor Invoking Descriptors
howto/descriptor Descriptor Example
howto/descriptor Properties
howto/descriptor Functions and Methods
howto/descriptor Static Methods and Class Methods
howto/doanddont Idioms and Anti-Idioms in Python
howto/doanddont Language Constructs You Should Not Use
howto/doanddont from module import *
howto/doanddont Inside Function Definitions
howto/doanddont At Module Level
howto/doanddont When It Is Just Fine
howto/doanddont Unadorned exec, execfile() and friends
howto/doanddont from module import name1, name2
howto/doanddont except:
howto/doanddont Exceptions
howto/doanddont Using the Batteries
howto/doanddont Using Backslash to Continue Statements
howto/functional Functional Programming HOWTO
howto/functional Introduction
howto/functional Formal provability
howto/functional Modularity
howto/functional Ease of debugging and testing
howto/functional Composability
howto/functional Iterators
howto/functional Data Types That Support Iterators
howto/functional Generator expressions and list comprehensions
howto/functional Generators
howto/functional Passing values into a generator
howto/functional Built-in functions
howto/functional Small functions and the lambda expression
howto/functional The itertools module
howto/functional Creating new iterators
howto/functional Calling functions on elements
howto/functional Selecting elements
howto/functional Grouping elements
howto/functional The functools module
howto/functional The operator module
howto/functional Revision History and Acknowledgements
howto/functional References
howto/functional General
howto/functional Python-specific
howto/functional Python documentation
howto/logging Logging HOWTO
howto/logging Basic Logging Tutorial
howto/logging When to use logging
howto/logging A simple example
howto/logging Logging to a file
howto/logging Logging from multiple modules
howto/logging Logging variable data
howto/logging Changing the format of displayed messages
howto/logging Displaying the date/time in messages
howto/logging Next Steps
howto/logging Advanced Logging Tutorial
howto/logging Logging Flow
howto/logging Loggers
howto/logging Handlers
howto/logging Formatters
howto/logging Configuring Logging
howto/logging What happens if no configuration is provided
howto/logging Configuring Logging for a Library
howto/logging Logging Levels
howto/logging Custom Levels
howto/logging Useful Handlers
howto/logging Exceptions raised during logging
howto/logging Using arbitrary objects as messages
howto/logging Optimization
howto/logging-cookbook Logging Cookbook
howto/logging-cookbook Using logging in multiple modules
howto/logging-cookbook Multiple handlers and formatters
howto/logging-cookbook Logging to multiple destinations
howto/logging-cookbook Configuration server example
howto/logging-cookbook Sending and receiving logging events across a network
howto/logging-cookbook Adding contextual information to your logging output
howto/logging-cookbook Using LoggerAdapters to impart contextual information
howto/logging-cookbook Using objects other than dicts to pass contextual information
howto/logging-cookbook Using Filters to impart contextual information
howto/logging-cookbook Logging to a single file from multiple processes
howto/logging-cookbook Using file rotation
howto/logging-cookbook An example dictionary-based configuration
howto/logging-cookbook Inserting a BOM into messages sent to a SysLogHandler
howto/logging-cookbook Implementing structured logging
howto/logging-cookbook Customizing handlers with dictConfig()
howto/logging-cookbook Configuring filters with dictConfig()
howto/regex Regular Expression HOWTO
howto/regex Introduction
howto/regex Simple Patterns
howto/regex Matching Characters
howto/regex Repeating Things
howto/regex Using Regular Expressions
howto/regex Compiling Regular Expressions
howto/regex The Backslash Plague
howto/regex Performing Matches
howto/regex Module-Level Functions
howto/regex Compilation Flags
howto/regex More Pattern Power
howto/regex More Metacharacters
howto/regex Grouping
howto/regex Non-capturing and Named Groups
howto/regex Lookahead Assertions
howto/regex Modifying Strings
howto/regex Splitting Strings
howto/regex Search and Replace
howto/regex Common Problems
howto/regex Use String Methods
howto/regex match() versus search()
howto/regex Greedy versus Non-Greedy
howto/regex Using re.VERBOSE
howto/regex Feedback
howto/sockets Socket Programming HOWTO
howto/sockets Sockets
howto/sockets History
howto/sockets Creating a Socket
howto/sockets IPC
howto/sockets Using a Socket
howto/sockets Binary Data
howto/sockets Disconnecting
howto/sockets When Sockets Die
howto/sockets Non-blocking Sockets
howto/sockets Performance
howto/sorting Sorting HOW TO
howto/sorting Sorting Basics
howto/sorting Key Functions
howto/sorting Operator Module Functions
howto/sorting Ascending and Descending
howto/sorting Sort Stability and Complex Sorts
howto/sorting The Old Way Using Decorate-Sort-Undecorate
howto/sorting The Old Way Using the cmp Parameter
howto/sorting Odd and Ends
howto/unicode Unicode HOWTO
howto/unicode Introduction to Unicode
howto/unicode History of Character Codes
howto/unicode Definitions
howto/unicode Encodings
howto/unicode References
howto/unicode Python 2.x’s Unicode Support
howto/unicode The Unicode Type
howto/unicode Unicode Literals in Python Source Code
howto/unicode Unicode Properties
howto/unicode References
howto/unicode Reading and Writing Unicode Data
howto/unicode Unicode filenames
howto/unicode Tips for Writing Unicode-aware Programs
howto/unicode References
howto/unicode Revision History and Acknowledgements
howto/urllib2 HOWTO Fetch Internet Resources Using urllib2
howto/urllib2 Introduction
howto/urllib2 Fetching URLs
howto/urllib2 Data
howto/urllib2 Headers
howto/urllib2 Handling Exceptions
howto/urllib2 URLError
howto/urllib2 HTTPError
howto/urllib2 Error Codes
howto/urllib2 Wrapping it Up
howto/urllib2 Number 1
howto/urllib2 Number 2
howto/urllib2 info and geturl
howto/urllib2 Openers and Handlers
howto/urllib2 Basic Authentication
howto/urllib2 Proxies
howto/urllib2 Sockets and Layers
howto/urllib2 Footnotes
howto/webservers HOWTO Use Python in the web
howto/webservers The Low-Level View
howto/webservers Common Gateway Interface
howto/webservers Simple script for testing CGI
howto/webservers Setting up CGI on your own server
howto/webservers Common problems with CGI scripts
howto/webservers mod_python
howto/webservers FastCGI and SCGI
howto/webservers Setting up FastCGI
howto/webservers mod_wsgi
howto/webservers Step back: WSGI
howto/webservers WSGI Servers
howto/webservers Case study: MoinMoin
howto/webservers Model-View-Controller
howto/webservers Ingredients for Websites
howto/webservers Templates
howto/webservers Data persistence
howto/webservers Frameworks
howto/webservers Some notable frameworks
howto/webservers Django
howto/webservers TurboGears
howto/webservers Zope
howto/webservers Other notable frameworks
howto/argparse Argparse Tutorial
howto/argparse Concepts
howto/argparse The basics
howto/argparse Introducing Positional arguments
howto/argparse Introducing Optional arguments
howto/argparse Short options
howto/argparse Combining Positional and Optional arguments
howto/argparse Getting a little more advanced
howto/argparse Conflicting options
howto/argparse Conclusion
faq/index Python Frequently Asked Questions
faq/general General Python FAQ
faq/general General Information
faq/general Python in the real world
faq/general Upgrading Python
faq/programming Programming FAQ
faq/programming General Questions
faq/programming Core Language
faq/programming Numbers and strings
faq/programming Sequences (Tuples/Lists)
faq/programming Dictionaries
faq/programming Objects
faq/programming Modules
faq/design Design and History FAQ
faq/design Why does Python use indentation for grouping of statements?
faq/design Why am I getting strange results with simple arithmetic operations?
faq/design Why are floating point calculations so inaccurate?
faq/design Why are Python strings immutable?
faq/design Why must ‘self’ be used explicitly in method definitions and calls?
faq/design Why can’t I use an assignment in an expression?
faq/design Why does Python use methods for some functionality (e.g. list.index()) but functions for other (e.g. len(list))?
faq/design Why is join() a string method instead of a list or tuple method?
faq/design How fast are exceptions?
faq/design Why isn’t there a switch or case statement in Python?
faq/design Can’t you emulate threads in the interpreter instead of relying on an OS-specific thread implementation?
faq/design Why can’t lambda expressions contain statements?
faq/design Can Python be compiled to machine code, C or some other language?
faq/design How does Python manage memory?
faq/design Why isn’t all memory freed when Python exits?
faq/design Why are there separate tuple and list data types?
faq/design How are lists implemented?
faq/design How are dictionaries implemented?
faq/design Why must dictionary keys be immutable?
faq/design Why doesn’t list.sort() return the sorted list?
faq/design How do you specify and enforce an interface spec in Python?
faq/design Why is there no goto?
faq/design Why can’t raw strings (r-strings) end with a backslash?
faq/design Why doesn’t Python have a “with” statement for attribute assignments?
faq/design Why are colons required for the if/while/def/class statements?
faq/design Why does Python allow commas at the end of lists and tuples?
faq/library Library and Extension FAQ
faq/library General Library Questions
faq/library Common tasks
faq/library Threads
faq/library Input and Output
faq/library Network/Internet Programming
faq/library Databases
faq/library Mathematics and Numerics
faq/extending Extending/Embedding FAQ
faq/extending Can I create my own functions in C?
faq/extending Can I create my own functions in C++?
faq/extending Writing C is hard; are there any alternatives?
faq/extending How can I execute arbitrary Python statements from C?
faq/extending How can I evaluate an arbitrary Python expression from C?
faq/extending How do I extract C values from a Python object?
faq/extending How do I use Py_BuildValue() to create a tuple of arbitrary length?
faq/extending How do I call an object’s method from C?
faq/extending How do I catch the output from PyErr_Print() (or anything that prints to stdout/stderr)?
faq/extending How do I access a module written in Python from C?
faq/extending How do I interface to C++ objects from Python?
faq/extending I added a module using the Setup file and the make fails; why?
faq/extending How do I debug an extension?
faq/extending I want to compile a Python module on my Linux system, but some files are missing. Why?
faq/extending What does “SystemError: _PyImport_FixupExtension: module yourmodule not loaded” mean?
faq/extending How do I tell “incomplete input” from “invalid input”?
faq/extending How do I find undefined g++ symbols __builtin_new or __pure_virtual?
faq/extending Can I create an object class with some methods implemented in C and others in Python (e.g. through inheritance)?
faq/extending When importing module X, why do I get “undefined symbol: PyUnicodeUCS2*”?
faq/windows Python on Windows FAQ
faq/windows How do I run a Python program under Windows?
faq/windows How do I make Python scripts executable?
faq/windows Why does Python sometimes take so long to start?
faq/windows How do I make an executable from a Python script?
faq/windows Is a *.pyd file the same as a DLL?
faq/windows How can I embed Python into a Windows application?
faq/windows How do I keep editors from inserting tabs into my Python source?
faq/windows How do I check for a keypress without blocking?
faq/windows How do I emulate os.kill() in Windows?
faq/windows How do I extract the downloaded documentation on Windows?
faq/gui Graphic User Interface FAQ
faq/gui What platform-independent GUI toolkits exist for Python?
faq/gui What platform-specific GUI toolkits exist for Python?
faq/gui Tkinter questions
faq/installed “Why is Python Installed on my Computer?” FAQ
faq/installed What is Python?
faq/installed Why is Python installed on my machine?
faq/installed Can I delete Python?
glossary Glossary
about About these documents
about Contributors to the Python Documentation
bugs Reporting Bugs
bugs Documentation bugs
bugs Using the Python issue tracker
bugs Getting started contributing to Python yourself
copyright Copyright
license History and License
license History of the software
license Terms and conditions for accessing or otherwise using Python
license Licenses and Acknowledgements for Incorporated Software
license Mersenne Twister
license Sockets
license Floating point exception control
license MD5 message digest algorithm
license Asynchronous socket services
license Cookie management
license Execution tracing
license UUencode and UUdecode functions
license XML Remote Procedure Calls
license test_epoll
license Select kqueue
license strtod and dtoa
license OpenSSL
license expat
license libffi
license zlib
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